Advertisement

Depressive Syndrome

  • Randolph B. Schiffer
  • Robert F. Klein
  • Roger C. Sider

Abstract

Major Depressive Syndrome. An illness episode characterized by either depressed mood, or loss of interest or pleasure. The illness episode should be further characterized by at least five psychobiologic signs of depression, such as weight change, sleep disturbance, psychomotor changes, anergy, feelings of worthlessness, impaired concentration, or recurrent thoughts of death.

Keywords

Multiple Sclerosis Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Depressed Patient Affective Disorder Psychiatric Patient 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Alarcon, R. D., and Thweatt, R. W. A case of subdural hematoma mimicking severe depression with conversion-like symptoms. Am. J. Psychiatry, 1983, 140, 1360–1361.Google Scholar
  2. Albert, M., Naeser, M. A., Levine, H. L., and Garvey, A. J. Ventricular size in patients with presenile dementia of the Alzheimer’s type. Arch. Neurol., 1984, 41, 1258–1263.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Anand, B. K., and Dua, S. Stimulation of limbic system of brain in waking animals. Science, 1955, 122, 1139.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Amsterdam, J. D., Henle, W., Winokur, A., Wolkowitz, O. M., Pickar, D., and Paul, S. M. Serum antibodies to Epstein-Barr virus in patients with major depressive disorder. Am. J. Psychiatry, 1986, 143, 1592–1596.Google Scholar
  5. Aron, D. C., Tyrrell, J. B., Fitzgerald, P. A., Findling, J. W., and Forsham, P. H. Cushing’s syndrome: Problems in diagnosis. Medicine, 1981, 60, 25–35.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Beresford, T. P., Hall, R. C. W., Wilson, F. C., and Blow, F. Clinical laboratory data in psychiatric outpatients. Psychosomatics, 1985, 26, 731–744.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bonnyns, M., Van Haelst, L., and Bastenie, P. A. Asymptomatic atrophic thyroiditis. Horm. Res., 1982, 16, 338–344.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Borer, M. S., and Bhanot, V. K. Hyperparathyroidism: Neuropsychiatric manifestations. Psychosomatics, 1985, 26, 597–601.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Burkle, F. M., and Lipowski, Z. J. Colloid cyst of the third ventricle presenting as a psychiatric disorder. Am. J. Psychiatry, 1978, 135, 373–374.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Buzzard, T. Lancet, 1897, No. 3827, 1–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Caine, E. D., and Polinsky, R. J. Haloperidol-induced dysphoria in patients with Tourette syndrome. Am. J. Psychiatry, 1979, 136, 1216–1217.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Calabrese, J. R., Gulledge, A. D., Hahn, K., Skwerer, R., Kotz, M., Schumaker, O. P., Gupta, M. K., Krupp, N., and Gold, P. W. Autoimmune thyroiditis in manic-depressive patients treated with lithium. Am. J. Psychiatry, 1985, 142, 1318–1321.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Carpenter, P. C. Cushing’s syndrome: Update of diagnosis and management. Clin. Pract., 1986, 61, 49–58.Google Scholar
  14. Casper, R. C., Redmond, D. E., Katz, M. M., Schaffer, C. B., Davis, J. M., and Koslow, S. H. Somatic symptoms in primary affective disorder. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry, 1985, 42, 1098 1104.Google Scholar
  15. Cohen, K. L., and Swigar, M. E. Thyroid function screening in psychiatric patients. JAMA, 1979, 242, 254–257.Google Scholar
  16. Damasio, H., Eslinger, P., Damasio, A. R., Rizzo, M., Huang, H. K., and Demeter, S. Quantitative computed tomographic analysis in the diagnosis of dementia. Arch. Neurol., 1983, 40, 715–719.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Delisi, L. E., Nurnberger, J. I., Simmons-Ailing, S., and Gershon, E. S. Epstein-Barr virus and depression. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry, 1986, 43, 815–816.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Dewhurst, K. The neurosyphilitic psychoses today: A survey of 91 cases. Br. J. Psychiatry, 1969, 115, 31–38.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 3d ed., rev. Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Association, 1987.Google Scholar
  20. Donald, A. G., Still„ C. N., and Pearson, J. M. Behavioral symptoms with intracranial neoplasm. South. Med. J., 1972, 65, 1006–1009.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Dowling, R. H. and Knox, S. J. Somatic symptoms in depressive illness. Br. J. Psychiatry,1964, 110, 720–722.Google Scholar
  22. Editorial. Now read this: The SI units are here. JAMA, 1986, 255, 2329–2339.Google Scholar
  23. Feighner, J. P., Robins, E., Guze, S. B., Woodruff, R. A., Winokur, G., and Munoz, R. Diag- nostic criteria for use in psychiatric research. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry, 1972, 26, 57–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Fras, I., Litin, E. M., and Pearson, J. S. Comparison of psychiatric symptoms in carcinoma of the pancreas with those in some other intra-abdominal neoplasms. Am. J. Psychiatry, 1967, 123, 1553–1562.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Gatewood, J. W., Organ, C. H., and Mead, B. T. Mental changes associated with hyperparathyroidism. Am. J. Psychiatry, 1975, 132, 129–132.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Gloor, P., Andre, O., Quesney, L. F., Andermann, F., and Horowitz, S. The role of the limbic system in experiential phenomena of temporal lobe epilepsy. Ann. Neurol.,1982, 12 129144.Google Scholar
  27. Gold, M. S., Pottash, A. L. C., and Extein, I. Hypothyroidism and depression. JAMA, 198la, 245, 1919–1922.Google Scholar
  28. Gold, M. S., Pottash, A. L. C., Mueller, E. A., and Extein, I. Grades of thyroid failure in 100 depressed and anergic psychiatric patients. Am. J. Psychiatry, 1981b, 138, 253–255.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Gold, M. S., Pottash, A. L. C., and Extein, I. “Symptomless” autoimmune thyroiditis in depression. Psychiatry Res., 1982, 6, 261–269.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Gold, P. W., Loriaux, D. L., Roy, A., Kling, M. A., Calabrese, J. R., Kellner, C. H., Nieman, L. K., Post, R. M., Pickar, D., Gallucci, W., Augerinos, P., Paul, S., Oldfield, E. H., Cutler, G. B., and Chrousos, G. P. Responses to corticotropin-releasing hormone in the hypercortisolism of depression and Cushing’s disease. N. Engl. J. Med., 1986, 314, 1329–1335.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Goodwin, F. K., and Bunney, W. E. Depression following reserpine: A reevaluation. Semin. Psychiatry, 1971, 3, 435–448.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Goodwin, F. K., Murphy, D. L., Brodie, H. K. H., and Bunney, W. E. L-Dopa, catecholamines, and behavior: A clinical and biochemical study in depressed patients. Biol. Psychiatry, 1970, 2, 341–366.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Greden, J. F., and Carroll, B. J. Psychomotor function in affective disorders: An overview of new monitoring techniques. Am. J. Psychiatry, 1981, 138, 1441–1448.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Hall, R. C. W. Depression. In Hall, R. C. W. (ed.): Psychiatric Presentations of Medical Illness: Somatopsychic Disorders. New York: SP Medical and Scientific Books, 1980.Google Scholar
  35. Holland, J. C., Korzun, A. H., Tross, S., Silberfarb, P., Perry, M., Comis, R., and Oster, M. Comparative psychological disturbance in patients with pancreatic and gastric cancer. Am. J. Psychiatry, 1986, 143, 982–986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Hollander, H., and Levy, J. A. Neurologic abnormalities and recovery of human immunodeficiency virus from cerebrospinal fluid. Ann. Intern. Med., 1987, 106, 692–695.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Hudson, J. I., Hudson, M. S., Griffing, G. T., Melby, J. C., and Pope, H. G. Phenomenology and family history of affective disorder in Cushing’s Disease. Am. J. Psych., 1987, 144, 95 1953.Google Scholar
  38. Javoy-Agid, F., and Agid, Y. Is the mesocortical dopaminergic system involved in Parkinson’s disease? Neurology (NY), 1980, 30, 1326–1330.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Jenkyn, L. R. Clinical signs in diffuse cerebral dysfunction. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry, 1977, 40, 956–966.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Karliner, W. Psychiatric manifestations of cancer of the pancreas. N.Y. State J. Med., 1956, 56, 2251–2252.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Karpati, G., and Frame, B. Neuropsychiatric disorders in primary hyperparathyroidism: Clinical analysis with review of the literature. Arch. Neurol., 1964, 10, 387–397.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Kearney, T. R. Parkinson’s disease presenting as depressive illness. J. Irish Med. Assoc., 1964, 54, 117–119.Google Scholar
  43. Kelly, W. F., Checkley, S. A., Bender, D. A., and Mashiter, K. Cushing’s syndrome and depression: A prospective study of 26 patients. Br. J. Psychiatry, 1983, 142, 16–19.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Kirshner, H. S. Language disorders in dementia. In Kirshner, H. S., and Freemon, F. R. (eds.): The Neurology of Aphasia, Chap. 11. Lisse, The Netherlands: Swets and Zeitlinger B. V., 1982.Google Scholar
  45. Kokmen, E. Dementia-Alzheimer type. Mayo Clin. Proc., 1984, 59, 35–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Lake, C. R., and Ziegler, M. G. (eds.). The Catecholamines in Psychiatric and Neurologic Disorders. London: Butterworth, 1985.Google Scholar
  47. Levy, R. M., Bredesen, D. E., and Rosenblum, M. L. Neurological manifestations of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS): Experience at UCSF and review of the literature. J. Neurosurg., 1985, 62, 475–495.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Lishman, W. A. Organic Psychiatry: The Psychological Consequences of Cerebral Disorder. Oxford, U.K.: Blackwell, 1978.Google Scholar
  49. Liston, E. H. Occult presenile dementia. J. Nerv. Ment. Dis., 1977, 164, 263–267.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Loosen, P. T., and Prange, A. J. Serum thyrotropin response to thyrotopin-releasing hormone in psychiatric patients: A review. Am. J. Psychiatry, 1982, 139, 405–416.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Loosen, P. T., and Prange, A. J. Hormones of the thyroid axis and behavior. In Nemeroff, C. B., and Dunn, A. J. (eds.): Peptides, Hormones, and Behavior. New York: Spectrum, 1984, pp. 533–577.Google Scholar
  52. Mann, J. J., Brown, R. P., Halper, J. P., Sweeney, J. A., Kocsis, J. H., Stokes, P. E., and Bilezikian, J. P. Reduced sensitivity of lymphocyte beta-adrenergic receptors in patients with endogenous depression and psychomotor agitation. N. Engl. J. Med., 1985, 313, 715–720.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Mayeux, R., Williams, J. B. W., Stem, Y., and Cote, L. Depression and Parkinson’s disease. Adv. Neurol., 1984, 40, 241–250.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. McKhann, G., Drachman, D., Folstein, F., Katzman, R., Price, D., and Stadlan, E. M. Clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease: Report of the NINCDS-ADRDA work group under the auspices of department of health and human services task force on Alzheimer’s disease. Neurology (NY), 1984, 34, 939–944.Google Scholar
  55. Mental Disorders: Glossary and Guide to Their Classification in Accordance with the Ninth Revision of the International Classification of Diseases. Geneva: World Health Organization, 1978.Google Scholar
  56. Michael, R. P., and Gibbons, J. L. Interrelationships between the endocrine system and neuropsychiatry. Int. Rev. Neurobiol., 1963, 5, 243–302.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. National Diabetes Data Group. Classification and diagnosis of diabetes mellitus and other categories of glucose intolerance. Diabetes, 1979, 28, 1039–1057.Google Scholar
  58. Nauta, W. J. H. Limbic innervation of the striatum. In Friedhoff, A. J., and Chase, T. N. (eds.): Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome. New York: Raven Press, 1982, pp. 41–47.Google Scholar
  59. Navia, B. A., and Price, R. W. The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome dementia complex as the presenting or sole manifestation of human immunodeficiency virus infection. Arch. Neurol., 1987, 44, 65–69.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Nee, L. E., Polinsky, R. J., Eldridge, R., Weingartner, H., Smallberg, S,, and Ebert, M. A family with histologically confirmed Alzheimer’s disease. Arch. Neurol., 1983, 40, 203–208.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Parker, N. Manic depressive psychosis following head injury. Med. J. Aust., 1957, 2, 20–22.Google Scholar
  62. Perlas, A. P., and Faillace, L. A. Psychiatric manifestations of carcinoma of the pancreas. Am. J. Psychiatry, 1964, 121, 182.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Petersen, P. Psychiatric disorders in primary hyperparathyroidism. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab., 1968, 28, 1491–1495.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Poser, C. M., Paty, D. W., Scheinberg, L., McDonald, W. I., Davis, F. A., Ebers, G. C., Johnson, K. P., Sibley, W. A., Silberberg, D. H.,and Tourtellotte, W. W. New diagnostic criteria for multiple sclerosis: Guidelines for research protocols. Ann. Neurol.,1983, 13 227231.Google Scholar
  65. Post, R. M., and Ballenger, J. C. (eds.). Neurobiology of Mood Disorders. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins, 1984.Google Scholar
  66. Pritchard, B. N. C., Johnston, A. W., Hill, I. D., and Rosenheim, M. L. Bethanidine, guanethidine, and methyldopa in the treatment of hypertension: A within-patient comparison. Br. Med. J., 1968, I, 135–144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Quetsch, R. M., Achor, R. W. P., Litin, E. M., and Faucett, R. L. Depressive reaction in hypertensive patients: A comparison of those treated with rauwolfia and those receiving no specific antihypertensive treatment. Circulation, 1959, 19, 366–375.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Reding, M., Haycox, J., and Blass, J. Depression in patients referred to a dementia clinic. Arch. Neurol., 1985, 42, 894–896.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Remington, F. B., and Rubert, S. L. Why patients with brain tumors come to a psychiatric hospital: A thirty year survey. Am. J. Psychiatry, 1962, 119, 256–257.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Roberts, M. A., McGeorge, A. P., and Caird, F. I. Electroencephalography and computerized tomography in vascular and non-vascular dementia in old age. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry, 1978, 41, 903–906.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Robinson, R. G., Lipsey, J. R., and Price, T. R. Diagnosis and clinical management of post-stroke depression. Psychosomatics, 1985, 26, 769–778.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Robinson, R. G., Lipsey, J. R., Rao, K., and Price, T. R. Two year longitudinal study of post stroke mood disorders: Comparison of acute-onset with delayed-onset depression. Am. J. Psychiatry, 1986, 143, 1238–1244.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Rodin, G., and Voshart, K. Depression in the medically ill: An overview. Am. J. Psychiatry, 1986, 143, 696–705.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Ron, M. A. Multiple sclerosis: Psychiatric and psychometric abnormalities. J. Psychosom. Res., 1986, 30, 3–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Rudick, R. A. Humoral immunity in multiple sclerosis clinical and investigative aspects. Semin. Neurol., 1985, 5, 107–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Rundell, J. R., Wise, M. G., and Ursano, R. J. Three cases of AIDS-related psychiatric disorders. Am. J. Psychiatry, 1986, 143, 777–778.Google Scholar
  77. Russell, R. W. R. Giant cell arteritis: A review of 35 cases. Q. J. Med., 1959, 28, 471–489.Google Scholar
  78. Sacks, O. W. Migraine: The Evolution of a Common Disorder. London: Faber, 1970.Google Scholar
  79. Schiffer, R. B. The spectrum of depression in multiple sclerosis: An approach for clinical management. Arch. Neurol., 1987, 44, 596–599.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Schiffer, R. B., and Babigian, H. M. Behavioral disorders in multiple sclerosis, temporal lobe epilepsy, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Arch. Neurol., 1984, 41, 1067–1069.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Schumacher, G. A., Beebe, G., Kibler, R. E., Kurland, L. T., Kurzke, J. F., McDowell, F., Nagler, B., Sibley, W. A., Tourtellotte, W. W., and Willmon, T. L. Problems of experimental trials of therapy in multiple sclerosis: Report by the panel on the evaluation of experimental trials of therapy in multiple sclerosis. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci., 1965, 122, 552–568.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Seltzer, B., and Sherwin, I. A comparison of clinical features in early-and late-onset primary degenerative dementia: One entity or two? Arch. Neurol., 1983, 40, 143–146.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Shader, R. I. Psychiatric Complications of Medical Drugs. New York: Raven Press, 1972.Google Scholar
  84. Sloman, L., Berridge, M., Homatidis, M. A., Hunter, D., and Duck, T. Gait patterns of depressed patients and normal subjects. Am. J. Psychiatry, 1982, 139, 94–97.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Smigan, L., Wahlin, A., Jacobsson, L., and Von Knotting, L. Lithium therapy and thyroid function tests: A prospective study. Neuropsychobiology, 1984, 11, 39–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Spiger, M., Jubiz, W., Meikle, A. W., West, C. D., and Tylor, F. H. Single-dose metyrapone test: Review of a four-year experience. Arch. Intern. Med., 1975, 135, 698–700.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Starkman, M. N., Schteingart, D. E., and Schork, M. A. Correlation of bedside cognitive and neuropsychological tests in patients with Cushing’s syndrome. Psychosomatics, 1986, 27, 508–511.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Taylor, J. W. Depression in thyrotoxicosis. Am. J. Psychol., 1975, 132, 552–553.Google Scholar
  89. Terry, R. D., and Davies, P. Dementia of the Alzheimer type. Annu. Rev. Neurosci., 1980, 3, 77–95.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Thomas, F. B., Mazzaferri, E. L., and Skillman, T. G. Apathetic thyrotoxicosis: A distinctive clinical and laboratory entity. Ann. Intern. Med., 1970, 72, 679–685.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Trethowan, W. H., and Cobb, S. Neuropsychiatric aspects of Cushing’s syndrome. Arch. Neurol. Psychiatry, 1952, 67, 283–309.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Trimble, M. R. Psychiatric and psychological aspects of epilepsy. In Morseli, P. L., Porter, R. J. (eds.): Interictal Psychoses of Epilepsy, Chap. 16. London: Butterworth, 1984.Google Scholar
  93. Varadaraj, R.,and Cooper, A. J. Addison’s disease presenting with psychiatric symptoms. Am. J. Psychiatry,1986, 143 553–554 (letter).Google Scholar
  94. Waal, H. J. Propranolol induced depression. Br. Med. J.,1967, 2 50 (letter).Google Scholar
  95. Warnes, H. Physical illness in the psychiatric patient. In Koranyi, E. K. (ed.): Physical Illness in the Psychiatric Patient. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas, 1982, pp. 119–137.Google Scholar
  96. Weddington, W. W., Cook, E. H., and Denson, M. W. Periarteritis nodosa mimicking an affective disorder. Psychosomatics, 1986, 27, 449–451.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Weiner, H., and Schuster, D. B. The electroencephalogram in dementia: Some preliminary observations and correlations. Electroencephalography, 1956, 8, 479–488.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Wells, C. E. Pseuododementia. Am. J. Psychiatry, 1979, 136, 895–900.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Whelan, T. B., Schteingart, D. E., Starkman, M. N., and Smith, A. Neuropsychological deficits in Cushing’s syndrome. J. Nerv. Ment. Dis., 1980, 168, 753–757.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Whybrow, P. C., and Horwitz, T. Psychological disturbances associated with endocrine disease and hormone therapy. In Sachar, E. J. (ed.): Hormones, Behavior, and Psychopathology. New York: Raven Press, 1976, pp. 125–143.Google Scholar
  101. Whybrow, P. C., Prange, A. J., and Treadway, C. R. Mental changes accompanying thyroid gland dysfunction. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry, 1969, 20, 48–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Williams, D. The structure of emotions reflected in epileptic experiences. Brain, 1956, 79, 29–67.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Zimmerman, M., Coryell, W., and Pfohl, B. The validity of the dexamethasone suppression test as a marker for endogenous depression. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry, 1986, 43, 347–355.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • Randolph B. Schiffer
    • 1
  • Robert F. Klein
    • 1
  • Roger C. Sider
    • 2
  1. 1.The University of Rochester School of Medicine and DentistryRochesterUSA
  2. 2.Pine Rest Christian HospitalGrand RapidsUSA

Personalised recommendations