Nonparanoid Psychosis

  • Randolph B. Schiffer
  • Robert F. Klein
  • Roger C. Sider


Alcoholic Hallucinosis. An organic hallucinosis in which vivid and persistent hallucinations develop shortly after cessation of or reduction in alcohol ingestion by a person who apparently has alcohol dependence.


Hepatic Encephalopathy Human Immune Deficiency Virus Confusional State Clinical Rule Neurologic Soft Sign 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Abrams, R., and Taylor, M. A. Catatonia; a prospective clinical study. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry, 1976, 33, 579–581.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Achte, K. A., Hillbom, E., and Aalberg, V. Psychoses following war brain injuries. Acta Psy-chiatr. Scand., 1969, 45, 1–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Andreasen, N. C., Smith, M. R., Jacoby, C. G., Dennert, J. W., and Olsen, S. A. Ventricular enlargement in schizophrenia: Definition and prevalence. Am. J. Psychiatry, 1982a, 139, 292–296.Google Scholar
  4. Andreasen, N. C., Olsen, S. A., Dennert, J. W., and Smith, M. R. Ventricular enlargement in schizophrenia: Relationship to positive and negative symptoms. Am. J. Psychiatry, 1982b, 139, 297–302.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Baldwin, M., and Hofmann, A. Hallucinations. In Vinken, P. J., and Bruyn, G. W. (eds.): Handbook of Clinical Neurology. Amsterdam: North-Holland, 1969, pp. 327–339.Google Scholar
  6. Bursten, B. Psychoses associated with thyrotoxicosis. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry, 1961, 4, 267–273.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cartwright, G. E. Diagnosis of treatable Wilson’s disease. N. Engl. J. Med., 1978, 298, 1347–1350.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Chung, Y. S., Ravi, S. D., and Borge, G. F. Psychosis in Wilson’s disease. Psychosomatics, 1986, 27, 65–66.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Dening, T. R. Psychiatric aspects of Wilson’s disease. Br. J. Psychiatry, 1985, 147, 677–682.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Dewhurst, K., and Hatrick, J. A. Differential diagnosis and treatment of lysergic acid diethylamide induced psychosis. Practitioner, 1972, 209, 327–332.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders,3d ed., revised. Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Association, 1987.Google Scholar
  12. Ebaugh, F. G., Barnacle, C. H., and Ewalt, J. P. Delirious episodes associated with artificial fever. Am. J. Psychiatry, 1936, 93, 191–217.Google Scholar
  13. Engel, G. L., and Romano, J. Delirium, a syndrome of cerebral insufficiency. J. Chron. Dis., 1959, 9, 260–277.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Evans, D. L., Edelsohn, G. A., and Golden, R. N. Organic psychosis without anemia or spinal cord symptoms in patients with vitamin B12 deficiency. Am. J. Psychiatry,1983, 140 218221.Google Scholar
  15. Filley, C. M., and Jarvis, P. E. Delayed reduplicative paramnesia. Neurology (NY), 1987, 37, 701–703.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Fraser, C. L., and Arieff, A. I. Hepatic encephalopathy. N. Engl. J. Med., 1985, 313, 865–873.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Gelenberg, A. J. The catatonic syndrome. Lancet, 1976, 1, 1339–1341.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Geller, T. J., and Bellur, S. N. Peduncular hallucinosis: Magnetic resonance imaging confirmation of mesencephalic infarction during life. Ann. Neurol., 1987, 21, 602–604.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Golden, C. J., Moses, J. A. Jr., Zelazowski, R., Graber, B., Zatz, L. M., Horvath, T. B., and Berger, P. A. Cerebral ventricular size and neuropsychological impairment in young chronic schizophrenics. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry, 1980, 37, 619–623.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Golden, R. N., James, S. P., Sherer; M. A., Rudorfer, M. V., Sack, D. A., and Potter, W. Z. Psychoses associated with buproprion treatment. Am. J. Psychiatry, 1985, 142, 1459–1462.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Goldstein, N. P., Ewert, G. C., Randall, R. V., and Gross, J. B. Psychiatric aspects of Wilson’sdisease (hepatolenticular degeneration): Results of psychometric tests during long term ther-apy. Am. J. Psychiatry, 1968, 124, 1555–1561.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Guberman, A., Cantu-Reyna, G., Stuss, D., and Broughton, R. Nonconvulsive generalized status epilepticus: Clinical features, neuropsychological testing, and long-term follow-up. Neurology (NY), 1986, 36, 1284–1291.Google Scholar
  23. Hanes, E. L. Acute delerium in psychiatric practice, with special reference to so-called acute delirious mania (collapse delirium). J. Nerv. Ment. Dis., 1912, 39, 236–250.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hart, C. T. Formed visual hallucinations: A symptom of cranial arteritis. Br. Med. J.,1967, 3 643 614.Google Scholar
  25. Herman, M., Harpham, D., and Rosenblum, M. Nonschizophrenic catatonic states. N. Y. State J. Med., 1942, 42, 624–627.Google Scholar
  26. Hillbom, E., and Kaila, M. Schizophrenia-like psychoses after brain trauma Acta Psychiatr. Neurol.,1951, (Suppl. 60), 36–47.Google Scholar
  27. Himmelhoch, J., Pincus, J., Tucker, G., and Peter, D. Subacute encephalitis: Behavioral and neurologic aspects. Br. J. Psychiatry, 1970, 116, 531–538.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Hockaday, T. D. R., Keynes, W. M., and McKenzie, J. K. Catatonic stupor in an elderly woman with hyperparathyroidism. Br. Med. J., 1966, 1, 85–87.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Jenkins, R. B., and Groh, R. H. Mental symptoms in parkinsonian patients treated with L-dopa. Lancet, 1970, 2, 177–180.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Kahlbaum, K. L. Catatonia (1874). Translated by George Mora. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1973.Google Scholar
  31. Lee, I. Nonconvulsive status epilepticus. Arch. Neurol., 1985, 42, 778–781.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Lipowski, Z. J. Delirium, clouding of consciousness and confusion. J. Nerv. Ment. Dis., 1967, 145, 227–255.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Lipowski, Z. J. Delirium (acute confusional states). JAMA, 1987, 258, 1789–1792.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Lishman, W. A. Organic Psychiatry: The Psychological Consequences of Cerebral Disorder. Oxford, U.K.: Blackwell Scientific, 1978.Google Scholar
  35. Lowall, J. Psychiatric presentations of seizures. Am. J. Psychiatry, 1976, 133, 321–323.Google Scholar
  36. Luchins, D. J., Weinberger, D. R., and Wyatt, R. J. Schizophrenia and cerebral asymmetry detected by computed tomography. Am. J. Psychiatry, 1982, 139, 753–757.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Mann, S. C., Caroff, S. N., Bleier, H. R., Welz, W. K. R., Kling, M. A., and Hayashida, M. Lethal catatonia. Am. J. Psychiatry, 1986, 143, 1374–1381.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. McGucken, R. B., and Caldwell, J. Teenage procyclidine abuse. Lancet, 1985, 1, 1514 (letter). Medical Letter. Drugs that cause psychiatric symptoms. Med. Lett. Drugs Ther., 1986, 28, 81–86.Google Scholar
  39. Medina, J. L., Chokroverty, S., and Rubino, F. A. Syndrome of agitated delirium and visual impairment: A manifestation of medial temporo-occipital infarction. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry, 1977, 40, 861–864.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Mental Disorders: Glossary and Guide to Their Classification in Accordance with the Ninth Revi-sion of the International Classification of Diseases. Geneva: World Health Organization, 1978.Google Scholar
  41. Mesulam, M., Waxman, S. G., Geschwind, N., and Sabin, T. D. Acute confusional states with right middle cerebral artery infarctions. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry, 1976, 39, 84–89.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Misra, P. C., and Hay, G. G. Encephalitis presenting as acute schizophrenia. Br. Med. J., 1971, 1, 532–533.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Nasrallah, H. A., Jacoby, C. G., McCalley-Whitters, M., and Kuperman, S. Cerebral ventricular enlargement in subtypes of chronic schizophrenia. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry, 1982, 39, 774–777.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Newmann, M. A. Periventricular diffuse pinealoma. Report of a case with clinical features of catatonic schizophrenia. J. Nerv. Ment. Dis., 1955, 121, 193–204.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Nicholi, A. M. The nontherapeutic use of psychoactive drugs. N. Engl. J. Med., 1983, 308, 925–933.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Pakalnis, A., Drake, M. E., and Kellum, T. B. Right parieto-occipital lacunar infarction with agitation, hallucinations, and delusions. Psychosomatics, 1987, 28, 95–96.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Patton, R. B., and Sheppard, J. A. Intracranial tumors found at autopsy in mental patients. Am. J. Psychiatry, 1956, 113, 319–324.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Penn, H., Racy J., Lapham, L., Mandel, M., and Sandt, J. Catatonic behavior, viral encephalopathy, and death. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry, 1972, 27, 758–761.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Quitkin, F., Rifkin, A., and Klein, D. F. Neurologic soft signs in schizophrenia and character disorders. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry, 1976, 33, 845–853.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Raskin, D. E., and Frank, S. W. Herpes encephalitis with catatonic stupor. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry, 1974, 31, 544–546.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Raskin, N. Intracranial neoplasms in psychotic patients. Am. J. Psychiatry,1956, 112 481-.484.Google Scholar
  52. Reed, A. E., Sherlock, S., Laidlaw, J., and Walker, J. G. The neuropsychiatric syndromes asso-ciated with chronic liver disease and an extensive portal—systemic collateral circulation. Q. J. Med., 1967, 36, 135–150.Google Scholar
  53. Reynolds, E. H. Neurological aspects of folate and vitamin B,2 metabolism. Clin. Haematol., 1976, 5, 661–696.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Rochford, J. M., Detre, T., Tucker, G. J., and Harrow, M. Neuropsychological impairments in functional psychiatric diseases. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry, 1970, 22, 114–119.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Rogers, D. The motor disorders of severe psychiatric illness: A conflict of paradigms. Br. J. Psychiatry, 1985, 147, 221–232.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Roos, D. Neurological complications in patients with impaired vitamin B12 absorption following partial gastrectomy. Acta Neurol. Scand., 1978, 59 (Suppl. 69), 1–77.Google Scholar
  57. Schwab, J. J., and Barrow, M. V. A reaction to organic fluorides simulating classical catatonia. Am. J. Psychiatry, 1964, 120, 1196–1197.Google Scholar
  58. Shader, R. I. Psychiatric Complications of Medical Drugs. New York: Raven Press, 1972.Google Scholar
  59. Shearer, M. L., and Finch, S. M. Periodic organic psychosis associated with recurrent herpes simplex. N. Engl. J. Med., 1964, 271, 494–497.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Shulman, R. The recent status of vitamin B,2 and folic acid deficiency in psychiatric illness. Can. Psychiatr. Assoc. J., 1972, 17, 205–216.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Slater, E. Psychosis associated with vitamin B deficiency. Br. Med. J., 1942, 1, 257–258.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Spies, T. D., Aring, C. D., Gelperin, J., and Bean, W. B. The mental symptoms of pellagra: Their relief with nicotinic acid. Am. J. Med. Sci., 1938, 196, 461–475.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Spivak, J. L., and Jackson, D. L. Pellagra: An analysis of 18 patients and a review of the literature. Johns Hopkins Med. J., 1977, 140, 295–309.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Starosta-Rubinstein, S., Young, A. B., Kluin, K., Hill, G., Aisen, A. M., Gabrielsen, T., and Brewer, G. J. Clinical assessment of 31 patients with Wilson’s disease: Correlations with structural changes on magnetic resonance imaging. Arch. Neurol., 1987, 44, 365–370.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Stoudemire, A. The differential diagnosis of catatonic states. Psychosomatics, 1982, 23, 245–252.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Strachun, R. W., and Henderson, J. G. Psychiatric syndromes due to avitaminosis B12 with normal blood and marrow. Q. J. Med., 1965, 34, 303–317.Google Scholar
  67. Summerskill, W. H. J., Davidson, E. A., Sherlock, S., and Steiner, R. E. The neuropsychiatric syndrome associated with hepatic cirrhosis and an extensive portal collateral circulation. Q. J. Med., 1956, 25, 245–266.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Sunderland, T., Tariot, P. N., Cohen, R. M., Weingartner, H., Mueller, E. A., and Murphy, D. L. Anticholinergic sensitivity in patients with dementia of the Alzheimer type and age-matched controls. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry, 1987, 44, 418–426.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Tippin, J., and Dunner, F. J. Biparietal infarctions in a patient with catatonia. Am. J. Psychiatry, 1981, 138, 1386–1387.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Tsai, L. Y., Nasrallah, H. A., and Jacoby, C. G. Hemispheric asymmetries on computed tomo- graphic scans in schizophrenia and mania. Arch. -Gen. Psychiatry, 1983, 40, 1286–1289.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Ungerleider, J. T., Fisher, D. D., and Fuller, M. The dangers of LSD. JAMA, 1966, 197, 389–392.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Van Rossurn, J., Groeneveld-Ockhuysen, A. A. W., and Arts, R. J. H. M. Psychomotor status. Arch. Neurol., 1985, 42, 989–993.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Weinberger, D. R. Implications of normal brain development for the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry, 1987, 44, 660–669.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Weinberger, D. R., Bigelow, L. B., and Kleinman, J. E. Cerebral ventricular enlargement in chronic schizophrenia: An association with poor response to treatment. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry, 1980, 37, 11–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Weinreb, H. J. Saccadic intrusions in schizophrenia: Identity with square-wave jerks? Arch. Gen. Psychiatry,1983, 40 1343 (letter).Google Scholar
  76. Wolff, H. G., and Curran, D. Nature of delirium and allied states. Arch. Neurol. Psychiatry, 1935, 33, 1175–1215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Woods, S. W. Catatonia in patients with subdural hematomas. Am. J. Psychiatry, 1980, 137, 983–984.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • Randolph B. Schiffer
    • 2
  • Robert F. Klein
    • 2
  • Roger C. Sider
    • 1
  1. 1.The University of Rochester School of Medicine and DentistryRochesterUSA
  2. 2.Pine Rest Christian HospitalGrand RapidsUSA

Personalised recommendations