Technology and Social Change: Ironworking in the Rise of Social Complexity in Iron Age Central Europe

  • Michael N. Geselowitz

Abstract

It has long been recognized that the last millennium B.C. was a time of profound social change in central Europe (see Bintliff 1984a; Wells 1984 for recent discussions that include historical backgrounds). It was also the period of the gradual but steady spread of ironworking into central Europe and beyond into western and northern Europe, as well as of the gradual and steady improvement of ironworking technology. Scholars have long sought to link the social and technological developments.

Keywords

Archaeological Record Iron Production Mortuary Practice Burial Rite Iron Artifact 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Barker, G. 1985 Prehistoric Farming in Europe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  2. Bartel, B. 1982 A historical review of ethnological and archaeological analyses of mortuary practices. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 1:32–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Binford, L.R. 1962 Archaeology as anthropology. American Antiquity 28:217–225.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bintliff, J. 1984a Introduction. In European Social Evolution: Archaeological Perspectives. J. Bintliff (ed.); pp. 13–39. West Chiltington, Sussex: Chanctonbury Press.Google Scholar
  5. Bintliff, J. 1984b Iron Age Europe in the context of social evolution from the Bronze Age through to historic times. In European Social Evolution: Archaeological Perspectives. J. Bintliff (ed.); pp. 157–225. West Chiltington, Sussex: Chanctonbury Press.Google Scholar
  6. Boserup, E. 1965 The Conditions of Agricultural Growth: The Economics of Agrarian Change under Population Pressure. Chicago: AldineGoogle Scholar
  7. Bouzek, J. 1985 The beginnings of the Iron Age in Central Europe. Archeologicke Rozhledy 37:83–92.Google Scholar
  8. Childe, V.G. 1925 The Dawn of European Civilization. London: Harmondsworth.Google Scholar
  9. Childe, V.G. 1945 Directional changes in funerary practices during 50,000 years. Man 45:13–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Coles, J.M. 1977 Parade and display: experiments in Bronze Age Europe. In Ancient Europe and the Mediterranean. V. Markotic (ed.); pp. 51–58 Warminster: Aris and Phillips.Google Scholar
  11. Ehrenreich, R. 1985 Trade, Technology and the Ironworking Community in the Iron Age of Southern Britain. Oxford: British Archaeological Reports, British Series 144.Google Scholar
  12. Geselowitz, M.N. 1987 Technological Development and Social Change: Ironworking in Late Prehistoric Central Europe. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Harvard University.Google Scholar
  13. Geselowitz M. N. n.d. The role of iron production in the formation of an ‘Iron Age economy’ in Central Europe. Research in Economic Anthropology 10: (in press).Google Scholar
  14. Harding, A.F. 1984 Aspects of social evolution in the Bronze Age. In European Social Evolution: Archaeological Perspectives. J. Bintliff (ed.); pp. 135–145. Chiltington, West Sussex: Chanctonbury Press.Google Scholar
  15. Lawrence, J.C.D. 1957 The Iteso: Fifty Years of Change in a Nilo-Hamitic Tribe of Uganda. London: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  16. Lechtman, H., and S. Steinberg 1979 The history of technology: an anthropological point of view. In The History and Philosophy of Technology. G. Bugliarello and D.B. Doner (eds.); pp. 135–160. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.Google Scholar
  17. Lemonnier, P. 1986 The study of material culture today: toward an anthropology of technical systems. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 5:147–186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Maddin, R. n.d. Some thoughts on the early hardening of iron. Paper presented before the International Symposium on Early Metallurgy, Beijing, 1986.Google Scholar
  19. Pacey, A. 1983 The Culture of Technology. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  20. Pelto, P.J. 1973 The Snowmobile Revolution: Technology and Social Change in the Arctic. Menlo Park, Calif.: Benjamin/Cummings.Google Scholar
  21. Pleiner, R. 1980 Early iron metallurgy in Europe. In The Coming of the Age of Iron. T.A. Wertime and J.D. Muhly (eds.); pp. 375–415. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  22. Pleiner, R. 1981 Die Wege des Eisens nach Europa. In Frühes Eisen in Europa (Festschrift für W.U. Guyan); pp. 115–125. Schaffhausen.Google Scholar
  23. Precourt, W.E. 1984 Mortuary practices and economic transaction: a hologeistic study. Research in Economic Anthropology 6:161–170.Google Scholar
  24. Ray, A.J. 1978 History and archaeology of the northern fur trade. American Antiquity 43:26–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Rouse, I. 1986 Migrations in Prehistory. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  26. Rowlands, M.J. 1984 Conceptualizing the European Bronze and Early Iron Age. In European Social Evolution: Archaeological Perspectives. J. Bintliff (ed.); pp. 147–156. West Chiltington, Sussex: Chanctonbury Press.Google Scholar
  27. Service, E. 1962 Primitive Social Organization: An Evolutionary Perspective. New York: Random House.Google Scholar
  28. Smith, C.S. 1981 A Search for Structure: Selected Essays on Science, Art, and History. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  29. Spicer, E.H., (ed.) 1952 Human Problems in Technological Change: A Casebook. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
  30. Trigger, B. 1984 Archaeology at the crossroads: what’s new?. Annual Review of Anthropology 13:275–300.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Wallerstein, I. 1974 The Modern World System. London: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  32. Wells, P.S. 1980 Culture Contact and Culture Change: Early Iron Age Central Europe and the Mediterranean World. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  33. Wells, P.S. 1981 The Emergence of an Iron Age Economy: The Mecklenburg Grave Groups from Hallstatt and Sticna. Mecklenburg Collection, Part III. Cambridge, Mass.: Peabody Museum, Harvard University, American School of Prehistoric Research, Bulletin 36.Google Scholar
  34. Wells, P.S. 1984 Farms, Villages, and Cities: Commerce and Urban Origins in Late Prehistoric Europe. Ithica: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  35. Wells, P.S. 1985 Mediterranean trade and culture change in Early Iron Age Central Europe. In Settlement and Society: Aspects of West European Prehistory in the Final Millennium B.C. J.V.S. Megaw and T.C. Champion (eds.); pp. 69–89. Leicester: Leicester University Press.Google Scholar
  36. Wheeler, T.S., and R. Maddin 1980 Metallurgy and ancient man. In The Coming of the Age of Iron. T. A. Wertime and J.D. Muhly (eds.); pp. 99–126. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  37. White, L.A. 1949 The Science of Culture. New York: Grove Press.Google Scholar
  38. White, L., Jr. 1962 Medieval Technology and Social Change. London: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michael N. Geselowitz
    • 1
  1. 1.Peabody MuseumHarvard UniversityCambridgeUSA

Personalised recommendations