## Abstract

When a system exists in a two-phase state, surface tension is exhibited at interfaces. Let us consider in particular a gas-liquid system consisting of a single liquid drop in contact with a gas. Let

*s*be the surface tension, and Σ the total interface area. It is possible to do work on such a system without changing its volume, but simply changing its interface area. For instance, the total rate of work done on the system can be expressed as$$W_{\mathrm{t}}\;=\;pV_{\mathrm{t}}^{\cdot}+s\Sigma ^{\cdot}$$

(6.1.1)

## Keywords

Surface Tension Capillary Pressure Interface Area Dynamic Surface Tension Equilibrium Surface Tension
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## Literature

- The classical paper by J. W. Gibbs, “On the equilibrium of heterogeneous substances,”
*Trans. Conn. Acad.***3**, 108, 343 (1878), includes a long section entitled “Theory of capillarity—surfaces of discontinuity between fluid masses” which is still today the best discussion of the equilibrium behavior of interfaces.Google Scholar - The book by R. Defay and I. Prigogine,
*Tension Superficielle et Absorption*, Dunod, Paris (1951) is difficult to read but covers the subject completely. A recent reference dealing with both equilibrium and dynamic properties isGoogle Scholar - C. A. Miller and P. Neogi,
*Interfacial Phenomena: Equilibrium and Dynamic Effects*, Dekker, New York (1985).Google Scholar - A good reference book, where most problems connected with surface thermodynamics (including adsorption and catalysis) are discussed thoroughly, is A. W. Adamson,
*Physical Chemistry of Surfaces*, Interscience, New York (1960).Google Scholar - The book by B. Levich,
*Physicochemical Hydrodynamics*, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs (1964), is a good source for dynamic phenomena at interfaces.Google Scholar

## Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1989