The thermodynamics of polymeric systems is dominated by a feature which is the essential characteristic of most polymers, i.e., that they are chainlike molecules with an enormous length-to-width ratio. This “geometric” property has consequences of a general nature which are often much more important than the details of the specific chemical structure of the polymer. Therefore, a sort of “universal” behavior is frequently observed which is characteristic of polymeric substances and which justifies that these systems be studied per se. In this chapter some of these universal properties are discussed. The individual aspects of the particular chemical structure will appear only indirectly, i.e., through the numerical values of parameters which enter the equations describing the universal theory.
KeywordsFriction Coefficient Polymer Molecule Hydrodynamic Interaction Rubber Elasticity Internal State Variable
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- The fundamental reference for the equilibrium thermodynamics of polymers is the classic book by P. J. Flory, Principles of Polymer Chemistry, Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY (1975), first published in 1953. Questions of chain conformation, rubber elasticity, and equilibrium properties of mixtures are treated there, at least in their basic aspects.Google Scholar
- The book by P. G. De Gennes, Scaling Concepts in Polymer Physics, Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY (1979), is an excellent modern monograph on solutions in good solvents. Both equilibrium and transport properties are considered, although the latter also refer, as in this chapter, to the equilibrium structure of the material, i.e., when the gradients are small.Google Scholar
- The fundamental reference for transport properties of polymers, both close to and far from equilibrium, is the recent book by M. Doi and S. F. Edwards, The Theory of Polymer Dynamics, Clarendon Press, Oxford (1986), where also the case of rigid polymers is considered. These authors are responsible for the most important advancements in the theory of dynamics of entangled systems.Google Scholar
- A detailed treatment of various kinds of dumbbell models or of multiple bead-spring and bead-rod chains, and a prediction of the corresponding rheological properties, can be found in the book by R. B. Bird, C. F. Curtiss, R. C. Armstrong, and O. Hassager, Dynamics of Polymeric Liquids, Vol. 2, Wiley, New York (1987).Google Scholar