Thermodynamics pp 269-289 | Cite as

Chemical Equilibria

  • Gianni Astarita


The theory of chemical equilibria consists essentially in the determination of the equilibrium composition in a system for which the reaction subspace is determined by the knowledge of an initial composition or of sufficient mass balance constraints. In the case of homogeneous (i.e., one-phase) equilibria, the thermodynamic equilibrium conditions is given by equation (3.4.2), which is rewritten below in terms of the N × M matrix of stoichiometric coefficients σ (N being the number of components and M the number of independent reactions, with M < N and M being the rank of the σ matrix):
$$\sigma ^{T}\cdot \mu ^{*}\;=\;0$$


Free Enthalpy Constitutive Equation Equilibrium Problem Chemical Equilibrium Solid Carbon 
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  1. Of course, the literature section in Chapter 3 is relevant to the material discussed in this chapter. Most textbooks on chemical engineering thermodynamics discuss in detail the calculation procedure for mixture compositions at chemical equilibrium; a lucid presentation is given by K. G. Denbigh, The Principles of Chemical Equilibrium, 3rd ed., Cambridge University Press (1971). Gas-liquid heterogeneous equilibria in systems involving ionic species are discussed by G. Astarita, D. W. Savage, and A. L. Bisio, Gas Treating with Chemical Solvents, Wiley, New York (1983).Google Scholar

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© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gianni Astarita
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.University of DelawareNewarkUSA
  2. 2.University of NaplesNaplesItaly

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