Thermodynamics pp 243-267 | Cite as

Phase Equilibria

  • Gianni Astarita


In one-component systems, gas-liquid equilibria simply occur when the average volume of the system is intermediate between those of the saturated liquid and the saturated vapor at the temperature T of the system. Correspondingly, the pressure is equal to the vapor pressure p s at temperature T.


Free Enthalpy Binary Mixture Activity Coefficient Pressure Correction Condensable Component 
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  1. There is such an ample literature on phase equilibria that it is difficult to provide any reasoned guide. Three classical books are M. B. King, Phase Equilibrium in Mixtures, Pergamon Press, Oxford (1969).Google Scholar
  2. A. Reisman, Phase Equilibria, Academic Press, New York (1970).Google Scholar
  3. J. E. Ricci, The Phase Rule and Heterogeneous Equilibrium, Van Nostrand, New York (1955).Google Scholar
  4. Of the books more specifically dedicated to special topics, the following are useful references: A. W. Francis, Liquid-Liquid Equilibriums, Wiley, New York (1963).Google Scholar
  5. W. Malesinski, Azeotropy, Wiley, New York (1965).Google Scholar
  6. With modern computing facilities, constitutive equations for activity coefficients in mixtures can be used for phase equilibrium calculations even if they are of rather overwhelming complexity; see J. M. Prausnitz et al., Computer Caculations for Multicom-ponent Vapor-Liquid and Liquid-Liquid Equilibria, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs (1980).Google Scholar
  7. S. I. Sandier, Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics, 2nd Ed., Wiley, New York (1988).Google Scholar
  8. The whole question of the continuous description of gas-liquid equilibria is discussed in several recent works. The simple case where Raoult’s law applies is discussed by J. R. Bowman, Ind. Eng. Chem. 41, 2004 (1949), andCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. W. C. Edminster and D. H. Buchanan, Chem. Eng. Prog., Symp. Ser. 6, 69 (1953).Google Scholar
  10. More recent literature is reviewed by S. K. Shibata, S. I. Sandier, and R. A. Behrens, Chem. Eng. Sci. 42, 1977 (1987).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Some of the published literature fails to recognize that the shape of the distribution function in the gas phase is different from that in the liquid phase [see, e.g., R. L Cotterman, D. Dimitrelis, and J. M. Prausnitz, Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem. 88, 796 (1984)] and should therefore be read with care.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gianni Astarita
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.University of DelawareNewarkUSA
  2. 2.University of NaplesNaplesItaly

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