Substance and Shadow

Images of the Enemy
  • Robert W. Rieber
  • Robert J. Kelly


While no subject deserves closer attention than that of war, an important component phenomenon of the mentality needed to wage war has gone largely undiscussed—enmification.l Though it is possible to think of war in terms of purely objective aims, as the continuation of diplomacy by other means, as Clausewitz’s famous phrase has it, “War is inconceivable without a clearly defined image of the enemy.” States at war may justify their strategic interests with rationales derived from current social and historical conditions. But the sheer aggressiveness of war, the use of unlimited force in the pursuit of those strategic objectives, both requires and engenders a deep-seated sense of enmity between participants. A battlefield without enemies cannot exist.


Foreign Policy Nuclear Weapon American Foreign Policy Modern Warfare Warsaw Pact 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Adler, A. (1917). The Neurotic constitution. New York: Moffat yard and company. Bateson, G. (1972). Mind and nature: A necessary unity. New York: Dutton.Google Scholar
  2. Erikson, E. (1969). Gandhi’s truth: The origins of militant nonviolence. New York: Norton. Frank, J. (1967). “The image of the enemy.” In Sanity and survival. New York: Knopf. Foucault, M. (1979). Discipline and punish: The birth of the prison. New York: Vintage.Google Scholar
  3. Freud, S. (1945). Group psychology and the analysis of the ego. London: Hogarth. Fromm, E. (1956). Sane society. New York: Bantam Books.Google Scholar
  4. Goffman, E. (1974). Frame analysis: An essay on the organization of experience. New York: Harper Colophon Books.Google Scholar
  5. Goldstein, K. (1963). The organism. Boston: Beacon Press.Google Scholar
  6. Janowitz, I. (1957). The professional soldier. Glencoe, Ill: Free Press.Google Scholar
  7. Jung, C.G. (1972). Two essays on analytical psychology. Princeton: Bollingen Press.Google Scholar
  8. Keen, S. (1986). Faces of the enemy: Reflections on the hostile imagination. New York: Harper & Row.Google Scholar
  9. Lenin, V.I. (1970). Lenin on the material and colonial questions: Three articles. Peking: Foreign Languages Press.Google Scholar
  10. Lens, S. (1979). The military industrial complex. New York: Pilgrim Press.Google Scholar
  11. Lifton, R.J. (1986). Nazi doctors: Medical killing and the psychology of genocide. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  12. Lifton, R.J. (1973). Home from the war. New York: Simon & Schuster.Google Scholar
  13. Lifton, R.J. (1971). Existential evil. In N. Sanford & C. Comstock, (Eds.). Sanctions for evil: Sources of social destruction. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  14. Nietzsche, F. (1986). “The wanderer and his shadow.” In Human all too human: Including assorted opinions and maxims and “The wanderer and his shadow.” Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  15. Mills, C.W. (1960). The causes of World War Three. New York: Ballantine.Google Scholar
  16. Redl, E, Ottenberg, P., & Viola, B. (1971). Dehumanization. In N. Sanford & C. Comstock, (Eds.): Sanctions for evil: Sources of social destruction. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  17. Rieber, R., & Green, M. (1989). The psychopathy of everyday life: Anti-social behavior and social distress. In R. Rieber (Ed.). in press. Individual, communication and society: Essays in honor of Gregory Bateson. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  18. Sheehan, T. (1986). The first coming. New York: Random House.Google Scholar
  19. Trotter, W. (1916). The herd instinct in time of peace and war. New York: Macmillan.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robert W. Rieber
    • 1
  • Robert J. Kelly
    • 2
  1. 1.John Jay College of Criminal JusticeCity University of New YorkNew YorkUSA
  2. 2.Brooklyn College, Graduate CenterCity University of New YorkBrooklynUSA

Personalised recommendations