How People Change with and without Therapy

  • Allan Cooper
  • Joel Cooper
Part of the The Springer Series in Social / Clinical Psychology book series (SSSC)


New situations require new behaviors. New roles require change in ways of relating to others. Sometimes the change is made easily, sometimes it seems impossible to change. Sometimes people manage to change on their own or with the help of friends. Sometimes people need psychotherapy before they are able to change. How people make behavioral and attitudinal changes in or out of psychotherapy is the subject of this chapter. We will approach this goal by melding insights from the interpersonal view of psychoanalysis with the theoretical constructs of social psychology.


Cognitive Dissonance Experimental Social Psychology Attitudinal Change Interpersonal Theory Fundamental Attitude 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Ajzen, I., & Fishbein, M. (1980). Understanding attitudes and predicting social behavior. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  2. Aronson, E. (1969). The theory of cognitive dissonance: A current perspective. In L. Berkowitz (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology, Vol. 4 (pp. 1 - 34 ). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  3. Brehm, J. W. (1972). Responses to loss of freedom: A theory of psychological reactance. Morristown, NJ: General Learning Press.Google Scholar
  4. Chess, S., & Thomas, A. (1984). Origins and evolution of behavior disorders. New York: Brunner/Mazel.Google Scholar
  5. Cooper, A. (1987). Transference and character. Contemporary Psychoanalysis, 23, 502 - 513.Google Scholar
  6. Cooper, A. (1989). Working through. Contemporary Psychoanalysis, 25, 34 - 62.Google Scholar
  7. Cooper, J. (1971). Personal responsibility and dissonance: The role of foreseen consequences. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 18, 354 - 363.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cooper, J., & Fazio, R. H. (1984). A new look at dissonance theory. In L. Berkowitz (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology, vol. 17 (pp. 229 - 266 ). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  9. Cooper, J., & Axsom, D. (1982). Effort jurisdiction in psychotherapy. In G. Weary & H. Mirels (Eds.), Integrations of clinical and social psychology (pp. 214 - 230 ) New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  10. Darley, S. A., & Cooper, J. (1972). Cognitive consequences of forced non-compliance. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 24, 321 - 326.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Fazio, R. H. (1986). How do attitudes guide behaviors? In R. M. Sorrentino & E. T. Higgins (Eds.), The handbook of motivation and cognition: Foundations of social behavior (pp. 204243 ). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  12. Fenichel, O. (1945). Psychoanalytic theory of neurosis. New York: Norton.Google Scholar
  13. Festinger, L. (1957). A theory of cognitive dissonance. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  14. Festinger, L., & Carlsmith, J. M. (1959). Cognitive consequences of forced compliance. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 58, 203 - 210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Fromm, E. (1947). Man for himself New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.Google Scholar
  16. La Piere, R. T. (1934). Attitudes vs. actions. Social Forces, 13, 230 - 237.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. LaPlanche, J., & Pontalis, J. B. (1973). The language of psychoanalysis. New York: Norton.Google Scholar
  18. Linder, D. E., Cooper, J., & Jones, E. E. (1967). Decision freedom as a determinant of the role of incentive magnitude in attitude change. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 6, 245 - 254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Regan, D. T., & Fazio, R. H. (1977). On the consistency between attitudes and behavior: Look to the method of attitude formation. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 13, 28 - 45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Segal, H. (1964). Introduction to the work of Melanie Klein. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  21. Steele, C. M., & Liu, T. J. (1983). Dissonance process as self-affirmation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 45, 5 - 19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Sullivan, H. S. (1953). The interpersonal theory of psychiatry. New York: Norton.Google Scholar
  23. Thompson, C. (1964). Transference and character analysis. In M. R. Green (Ed.), Interpersonal psychoanalysis (pp. 23 - 31 ). New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • Allan Cooper
    • 1
  • Joel Cooper
    • 2
  1. 1.William Alanson White InstituteNew YorkUSA
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyPrinceton UniversityPrincetonUSA

Personalised recommendations