Interactions of Matrix Components and Soluble Factors in Vascular Responses to Injury

Modulation of Cell Phenotype
  • Joseph A. Madri
  • June R. Merwin
  • Leonard Bell
  • Craig T. Basson
  • Olivier Kocher
  • Robin Perlmutter
  • Christian Prinz

Abstract

The vascular system is lined by mitotically quiescent but metabolically active endothelial cells, which in addition to having a broad range of metabolic activities, provide a nonthrombogenic surface for blood flow. Beneath the endothelium, smooth muscle cells are found in the media of large vessels, and pericytes are found in close association with the endothelial cells of microvascular beds. The smooth muscle cells (pericytes) are thought to play major roles in maintaining vessel wall integrity, being responsible for the maintenance to the connective tissues of the vessel wall and in the control of vascular tone.8 Vascular cells (large and small vessel derived endothelial, pericyte, and smooth muscle cells) have been found to respond to injury in specific ways, depending upon the vascular bed and the cell type(s) injured. For example, following denudation injury evoked by angioplasty, endarterectomy or autologous or synthetic grafting, large vessel endothelial cells bordering the affected area will exhibit rapid sheet migration over the exposed extracellular matrix and proliferate in an attempt to reconstitute the normal continuous endothelial cell lining.15,20 The medial smooth muscle cells of large and medium-sized vessels respond to vessel injury by migrating into the intima, where they proliferate and synthesize matrix components, which results in the formation of a thickened intima which narrows the vessel lumen.34 In contrast, following soft tissue injury or in response to a variety of angiogenic factors, microvascular endothelial cells respond by freeing themselves from the constraints of their investing basement membranes. Following this, they migrate and proliferate in the surrounding three-dimensional interstitial stroma and ultimately form new microvessels.17

Keywords

Soluble Factor Microvascular Endothelial Cell Medial Smooth Muscle Cell Laminin Binding Protein Endothelial Cell Biology 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • Joseph A. Madri
    • 1
  • June R. Merwin
    • 1
  • Leonard Bell
    • 2
  • Craig T. Basson
    • 1
  • Olivier Kocher
    • 1
  • Robin Perlmutter
    • 1
  • Christian Prinz
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PathologyYale University School of MedicineNew HavenUSA
  2. 2.Department of Internal Medicine-CardiologyYale University School of MedicineNew HavenUSA

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