Changes of Arterial Endothelial Cells in Chronic Hypertension with Special Reference to Regressive Changes and Replication

  • Fumitada Hazama
  • Masakiyo Sasahara


Hypertension is a potent risk factor for atherosclerosis and causes hypertensive vascular changes by itself. On the other hand, injuries to endothelial cells have been shown to be a possible initiating event in atherogenesis1,2 as well as in the development of hypertensive arterial changes.3,4 Therefore, information about the morphological and functional changes of endothelial cells associated with chronic hypertension and the mechanisms by which hypertension injures endothelial cells is indispensable for a better understanding of the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and hypertensive vascular changes. Recently it has been found that endothelial cells contain factors related to the contraction, dilation, migration, and proliferation of medial smooth muscle cells. Therefore, it is possible that endothelial cells have an important role in the regulation of the vascular functions. Information about the effects of chronic hypertension on such regulating mechanisms of endothelial cells is also very important.


Endothelial Cell Lysosomal Enzyme Aortic Endothelial Cell Chronic Hypertension Arterial Endothelial Cell 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Ross, R., and Glomset, J. A., 1976, The pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, N. Engl. J. Med. 295:420–425.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Thorgeirsson, G., and Robertson, A. L., 1978, The vascular endothelium. Pathologic significance, Am. J. Pathol. 93:803–848.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Hazama, F., Amano, S., Haebara, H., Yamori, Y., and Okamoto, K., 1976, Pathology and pathogenesis of cerebrovascular lesions in spontaneously hypertensive rats, in: The Cerebral Vessel Wall (J. Cervos-Navarro, E. Betz, F. Matakas, and R. Wüllenweber, eds.), Raven Press, New York, p. 245.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Hazama, F., and Amano, S., 1978, Pathological changes of cerebral vessel endothelial cells in spontaneously hypertensive rats, with special reference to the role of these cells in the development of hypertensive cerebrovascular lesions, Adv. Neurol. 20:359–369.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Okamoto, K., and Aoki, K., 1963, Development of a strain of spontaneously hypertensive rats, Jpn. Circ. J. 16:117–124.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hazama, F., Ooshima, A., Tanaka, T., Tomimoto, K., and Okamoto, K., 1975, Vascular lesions in the various substrains of spontaneously hypertensive rats and the effects of chronic salt ingestion, Jpn. Circ. J. 39:7–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Okamoto, K., Yamori, Y., and Nagaoka, A., 1974, Establishment of the stroke prone spontaneously hypertensive rat, Cir. Res. 34/35(Suppl. I): 143–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Amano, S., 1977, Vascular changes in the brain of spontaneously hypertensive rats: Hyaline and fibrinoid degeneration, J. Pathol. 121:119–128.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ooshima, A., Fuller, G., Cardinale, G., Spector, S., and Udenfriend, S., 1975, Collagen biosynthesis in blood vessels of brain and other tissues of the hypertensive rats, Science 190:898–900.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Hazama, F., Amano, S., Haebara, H., and Okamoto, K., 1975, Changes in vascular permeability in the brain of stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats studied with peroxidase as a tracer, Acta Pathol. Jpn. 25:565–574.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Fredriksson, K., Nordborg, C., Kalimo, H., Olsson, Y., and Johansson, B. B., 1988, Cerebral microangiopathy in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats. An immunohistochemical and ultrastructural study, Acta Neuropathol. 75:241–252.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Hazama, F., Ozaki, T., and Amano, S., 1979, Scanning electron microscopic study of endothelial cells of cerebral arteries from spontaneously hypertensive rats, Stroke 10:245–252.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Uehara, Y., Komuro, T., and Yamasaki, J., 1977, Structural problems of the blood vessel walls, in: Basic Studies on Cardiovascular System, Ministry of Education, Science and Culture of Japan, Tokyo, p. 74.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Takeshige, Y., Fujimoto, J., and Yamamoto, K., 1977, Structure and function of vascular endothelial cells, in: Basic Studies on Cardiovascular System, Ministry of Education, Science and Culture of Japan, Tokyo, p. 49.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Tokunaga, H., Osaka, M., and Fujita, T., 1973, Endothelial surface of rabbit aorta as observed by scanning electron microscope, Arch. Histol. Jpn. 36:129–141.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Povlishock, J. T., Kantos, H. A., Rosenblum, W. I., Becker, D. P., Jenkins, L. W., and DeWitt, D. S., 1980, Scanning electron-microscopic analysis of the intraparenchymal brain vasculature following experimental hypertension, Acta Neuropathol. 51:203–212.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Kawamura, J., Gertz, S. D., Sunaga, T., Rennels, M. L., and Nelson, E., 1974, Scanning electron microscopic observations on the luminal surface of the rabbit common carotid artery subjected to ischemia by arterial occlusion, Stroke 5:765–774.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Allison, A. C., Hariyton, J. S., and Birbeck, M., 1966, Examination of the cytotoxic effects of silica on macrophages, J. Exp. Med. 124:141–154.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Weissmann, G., 1975, The molecular basis of acute gout, in: Cell Membrane (G. Weissmann, ed.), HP Publishing, New York, p. 257.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Wolinsky, H., Goldfisher, S., Schiller, B., and Kasak, L. E., 1973, Lysosomes in aortic smooth muscle cells. Effects of hypertension, Am. J. Pathol. 73:727–734.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Wolinsky, H., Goldfisher, S., Schiller, B., and Kasak, L. E., 1974, Modification of the effects of hypertension on lysosomes and connective tissue in the rat aorta, Circ. Res. 34:233–241.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Riede, U. N., and Staubesand, J. A., 1977, A unifying concept for the role of matrix vesicles and lysosomes in the formal pathogenesis of disease of connective tissue and blood vessels, Beitr. Pathol. 160:3–37.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Yamada, E., Hazama, F., Amano, S., and Hanakita, J., 1979, Acid phosphatase activity of the brain in SHR. The first report of enzyme histochemical studies of spontaneously hypertensive rat brain, Jpn. Circ. J. 43: 285–292.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Watanabe, M., Yamada, E., Hazama, F., and Nomura, T., 1981, Acid phosphatase activity in the aorta of spontaneously hypertensive rats and the effect of various antihypertensive drugs, Atherosclerosis 40:167–174.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Yamada, E., Hazama, F., Amano, S., Sasahara, M., Kataoka, H., and Kayembe, K., 1983, Semiquantitative histochemical investigation of lysosomal enzyme activities in the aortic endothelial cells of spontaneously hypertensive rats, Atherosclerosis 47:19–26.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Sasahara, M., Hazama, F., Yamada, E., Kataoka, H., Amano, S., and Kayembe, K., 1983, Semiquantitative histochemical investigation of lysosomal enzyme activities in the aortic endothelial cells of rats with renal hypertension, Virchows Arch. B 44:267–274.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Sasahara, M., Hazama, F., Amano, S., Hayase, Y., Yukioka, N., Kawai, J., and Kataoka, H., 1988, Effects of hypertension on lysosomal enzyme activities in aortic endothelial cells, Atherosclerosis 70:53–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Yukioka, N., Yamada, E., Sasahara, M., Kawai, J., Hayase, Y., Amano, S., Hazama, F., 1988, Lysosomal enzyme activities in the cerebral microvessels in spontaneously hypertensive rats, Exp. Mol. Pathol. 49:111 – 117.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Yamada, E., Hazama, F., Amano, S., and Hanakita, J., 1980, Cytochemical investigation on acid phosphatase activity in cerebral arteries in spontaneously hypertensive rats, Jpn. Circ. J. 44:467–475.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Dannenberg, A. N., Wabier, P. C., and Kapral, F. A., 1963, A histochemical study of phagocytic and enzymatic functions of rabbit mononuclear and polymorphonuclear exudate cells and alveolar macrophages, J. Immunol. 90:448–465.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Stanton, D. A., and Cohn, Z. A., 1970, In vitro induction of lysosomal enzymes of phagocytosis, J. Exp. Med. 131:1239–1260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Hansson, H.-A., Johansonn, B. B., and Blomstand, C., 1975, Ultrastructural studies on cerebral permeability on acute hypertension, Acta Neuropathol. 32:187–198.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Westergaard, E., van Deurs, B., and Bronsted, H. E., 1977, Increased vesicular transport of horseradish peroxidase across cerebral endothelium, evoked by acute hypertension, Acta Neuropathol. 37:141–152.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Nag, S., Robertson, D., and Dinsdale, H. E., 1977, Cerebral cortical changes in acute experimental hypertension. An ultrastructural study, Lab. Invest. 36:150–161.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Nag, S., Robertson, D. M., and Dinsdale, H. B., 1980, Morphological changes in spontaneously hypertensive rats, Acta Neuropathol. 52:27–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Hayase, Y., Sasahara, M., Kawai, J., and Hazama, F., 1989, Proliferation and pinocytosis of cultured aortic endothelial cells from hypertensive rats, J. Shiga Univ. Med. Sci. 4:25–36.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Hazama, F., Haebara, H., Amano, S., and Ozaki, T., 1977, Autoradiographic investigation of cell proliferation in the brian of spontaneously hypertensive rats, Acta Neuropathol. 37:231–236.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Crane, W. A. J., and Dutta, L. P., 1963, The utilization of tritiated thymidine for deoxyribonucleic acid synthesis by the lesions of experimental hypertension in rats, J. Pathol. Bacteriol. 86:83–97.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Daniel, R. E., Boitnott, J. K., Brown, G. D., and Heptinstall, R. H., 1982, Aortic endothelial cell activity in high renin and normal renin models of hypertension in the rat, Lab. Invest. 47:451–458.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    De Chastonay, C. G., Gabbiani, G., Elemerm, G., and Hüttner, I., 1983, Remodeling of the rat aortic endothelial layer during experimental hypertension. Changes in replication rate, cell density, and surface morphology, Lab. Invest. 48:45–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Schwartz, S. M., and Benditt, E. P., 1975, Aortic endothelial cell replication. I. Effects of age and hypertension in the rats, Circ. Res. 41:248–255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Grünwald, J. M., Shaper, W., Shulte, W., and Hauss, W. H., 1984, About the effect of risk factor on the structure and the proliferation of cultivated aortic wall cells. Part 2: Changes in structure and proliferation of cultivated aortic endothelial cells from hypertensive minipigs, Exp. Pathol. 25:163–168.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Davies, P. F., Seiden, S. C., and Schwartz, S. M., 1980, Enhanced rate of fluid pinocytosis during exponential growth and monolayer regeneration by cultured arterial endothelial cells, J. Cell. Physiol. 102:119–127.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Gajdusek, C., DiCorleto, P., Ross, R., and Schwartz, S. M., 1980, An endothelial cell-derived growth factor, J. Cell Biol. 85:467–472.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    DiCorleto, P. E., Gajdusek, C. M., Schwartz, S. M., and Ross, R., 1983, Biochemical properties of the endothelium-derived growth factor: Comparison to other growth factors, J. Cell. Physiol. 114:339–345.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • Fumitada Hazama
    • 1
  • Masakiyo Sasahara
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PathologyShiga University of Medical ScienceSeta, OtsuJapan

Personalised recommendations