Universal Principles of Measurement and Language Functions in Evolving Systems

  • H. H. Pattee
Part of the International Federation for Systems Research International Series on Systems Science and Engineering book series (IFSR, volume 7)


The ability to construct measuring devices and to predict the results of measurements using models expressed in formal mathematical language is now generally accepted as the minimum requirement for any form of scientific theory. The modern cultural development of these skills is usually credited to the Newtonian epoch, although traces go back at least 2000 years to the Milesian philosophers. In any case, from the enormously broader evolutionary perspective, covering well over three billion years, the inventions of measurement and language are commonly regarded as only the most recent and elaborate form of intelligent activity of the most recent and elaborate species.


Output Action Input Pattern Nonholonomic Constraint Universal Principle Program Step 
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© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1991

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  • H. H. Pattee

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