Advertisement

Principles of the Self-Organizing System

  • W. Ross Ashby
Chapter
Part of the International Federation for Systems Research International Series on Systems Science and Engineering book series (IFSR, volume 7)

Abstract

Questions of principle are sometimes regarded as too unpractical to be important, but I suggest that that is certainly not the case in our subject. The range of phenomena that we have to deal with is so broad that, were it to be dealt with wholly at the technological or practical level, we would be defeated by the sheer quantity and complexity of it. The total range can be handled only piecemeal; among the pieces are those homomorphisms of the complex whole that we call “abstract theory” or “general principles.” They alone give the bird’s-eye view that enables us to move about in this vast field without losing our bearings. I propose, then, to attempt such a bird’s-eye survey.

Keywords

Product Space Finite Automaton Absolute Sense Focal Condition Spontaneous Generation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    W. Ross Ashby, The physical origin of adaptation by trial and error, J. Gen. Psychol. 32, pp. 13–25 (1945).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    W. Ross Ashby, Principles of the self-organizing dynamic system, J. Gen. Psychol. 37, pp. 125–8 (1947).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    W. Ross Ashby, An Introduction to Cybernetics, Wiley, New York, 3rd imp. (1958a).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    W. Ross Ashby, Requisite variety and its implications for the control of complex systems, Cybernetica, 1, pp. 83–99 (1958b).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    W. Ross Ashby, The mechanism of habituation. In: The Mechanization of Thought Processes. (Natl. Phys. Lab. Symposium No. 10 ) H.M.S.O., London (1960).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    W. Ross Ashby, Computers and decision-making, New Scientist, 7, p. 746 (1960b).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    W. Ross Ashby, The brain as regulator, Nature, Lond. 186, p. 413 (1960c).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    W. Ross Ashby, Design for a Brain: the Origin of Adaptive Behavior, Wiley, New York, 2nd ed. (1960d).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    L. von Bertalanffy, An outline of general system theory, Brit. J. Phil. Sci. 1, pp. 134–65 (1950).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    R. L. Beurle, Properties of a mass of cells capable of regenerating pulses, Proc. Roy. Soc. B240, pp. 55–94 (1956).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    W. R. Garner and W. J. McGill, The relation between information and variance analyses, Psychometrika 21, pp. 219–28 (1956).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. R. C. Jeffrey, Some recent simplifications of the theory of finite automata. Technical Report 219, Research Laboratory of Electronics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (27 May 1959).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    H. S. Jennings, Behavior of the Lower Organisms, New York (1906).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    A. J. Lotka, Elements of Physical Biology, Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore (1925).Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    J. G. March and J. A. Simon, Organizations, Wiley, New York (1958).Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    K. H. Pribram, Fifteenth International Congress of Psychology, Brussels (1957).Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    C. E. Shannon and W. Weaver, The Mathematical Theory of Communication, University of Illinois Press, Urbana (1949).Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    G. Sommerhoff, Analytical Biology, Oxford University Press, London (1950).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • W. Ross Ashby

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations