Several terms are used to express relative ease of dissolution, such as soluble at any proportion, very soluble, soluble, slightly or sparingly soluble, and insoluble. Slightly or sparingly soluble materials have aqueous solubilities between about 10−2 and 10−6 mol · dm−3; alcohols and carboxylic acids with n-alkyl chains from C6 to C14 fall in this category. Surfactants can also be classed as barely soluble materials on the basis of their monomeric solubility or their concentration below the CMC, as is reasonably expected from the alkyl chain length of most surfactant molecules. However slight, aqueous soubility clearly indicates the presence of at least one hydrophilic group in a molecule. Particularly if this group is ionic, the degree of aqueous solubility depends strongly on the conditions of solution such as pH, ionic strength, the fraction of organic additives, and the temperature and pressure. Some sparingly soluble materials may be made quite soluble by altering the solution conditions, and the state of the dissolved molecules will vary accordingly.
KeywordsAqueous Solubility Supercooled Liquid Solubility Curve Soluble Material Molar Free Energy
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