Personality Characteristics, Reactivity, and Cardiovascular Disease

  • B. Kent Houston
Part of the Perspectives on Individual Differences book series (PIDF)


The objectives of the present chapter are two-fold. One is to survey personality characteristics that have been investigated in relation to cardiovascular disease (CVD) and/or reactivity. The second is to call attention to some of the issues that need to be considered by researchers who investigate possible associations between personality and reactivity. An important overarching consideration for this area of inquiry is that personality characteristics operate within a framework of other variables and processes to potentially affect reactivity. In other words, a personality characteristic does not influence reactivity or relate to CVD separately or directly but in the context of other variables and processes. A useful approach for considering the relation between personality characteristics, reactivity, and CVD is in the structure of a model of affective and motivational arousal will be briefly outlined here that underscores a sequence of events and an interplay between variables.


Personality Characteristic Cardiovascular Response Cynomolgus Monkey Test Anxiety Cardiovascular Reactivity 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Anderson, N. B., Williams, R. B., Jr., Lane, J. D., Haney, T., Simpson, S., & Houseworth, S. J. (1986). Type A behavior, family history of hypertension, and cardiovascular responsivity among black women. Health Psychology, 5, 393–406.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Asendorpf, J., & Scherer, K. (1983). The discrepant repressor: Differentiation between low anxiety, high anxiety, and repression of anxiety by autonomic-facial-verbal patterns of behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 45, 1334–1346.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Billings, A. G., & Moos, R. H. (1984). Coping, stress, and social resources among adults with unipolar depression. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 46, 877–891.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Blumenthal, J. A., Lane, J. D., Williams, R. B., Jr., McKee, D. C., Haney, T., & White, A. (1983). Effects of task incentive on cardiovascular response in Type A and Type B individuals. Psychophysiology, 20, 63–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Blumenthal, J. A., Lane, J. D., & Williams, R. B., Jr. (1985). The inhibited power motive, Type A behavior, and patterns of cardiovascular response during the structured interview and Thematic Apperception Test. Journal of Human Stress, 11(2), 89–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Blumenthal, J. A., Barefoot, J. C., Burg, M. M., Williams, R. B., Jr. (1987). Psychological correlates of hostility among patients undergoing coronary angiography. British Journal of Medical Psychology, 60, 349–355.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Brozek, J., Keys, A., & Blackburn, H. (1966). Personality differences between potential coronary and noncoronary subjects. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 134, 1057–1064.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Buss, A. H., & Plomin, R. (1984). Temperament: Early developing personality traits. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  9. Carver, C. S., Scheier, M. F., & Weintraub, J. K. (1989). Assessing coping strategies: A theoretically based approach. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 56, 267–283.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Chesney, M. A., Hecker, M. H. L., & Black, G. W. (1988). Coronary-prone components of Type A behavior in the WCGS: A new methodology. In B. K. Houston & C. R. Snyder (Eds.), Type A behavior pattern: Research, theory, and intervention (p. 168–188). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  11. Chesney, M. A., Ekman, P., Friesen, W. V., Black, G. W., & Hecker, M. H. L. (1990). Type A behavior pattern: Facial behavior and speech components. Psychosomatic Medicine, 53, 307–319.Google Scholar
  12. Contrada R. J. (1989). Type A behavior, personality hardiness, and cardiovascular responses to stress. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57, 895–903.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Cook, W. W., & Medley, D. M. (1954). Proposed hostility and pharisaic-virtue scales for the MMPI. Journal of Applied Psychology, 38, 414–418.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Costa, P. T., & McCrae, R. R. (1985). Hypochondriasis, neuroticism, and aging: When are somatic complaints unfounded?. American Psychologist, 40, 19–28.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. DeGood, D. E. (1975). Cognitive control factors in vascular stress responses. Psychophysiology, 12, 399–423.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Dembroski, T. M. (1978). Reliability and validity of methods to assess coronary-prone behavior. In T. M. Dembroski, S. M. Weiss, J. L. Shields, S. G. Haynes, & M. Feinleib (Eds.), Coronarprone behavior (pp. 95–106). Berlin: Springer-Verlag.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Dembroski, T. M., & Costa, P. T., Jr. (1987). Coronary-prone behavior: Components of the Type A pattern and hostility. Journal of Personality, 55, 211–235.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Dembroski, T. M., MacDougall, J. M., Shields, J. L., Petitto, J., & Lushene, R. (1978). Components of the Type A coronary-prone behavior pattern and cardiovascular responses to psychomotor performance challenge. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 1, 159–175.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Dembroski, T. M., MacDougall, J. M., Herd, J. A, & Shields, J. L. (1979). Effect of level of challenge on pressor and heart rate responses in Type A and B subjects. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 9, 209–228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Dembroski, T. M., MacDougall, J. M., Costa, P. T., Jr., & Grandits, G. A. (1989). Components of hostility as predictors of sudden death and myocardial infarction in the Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial. Psychosomatic Medicine, 51, 514–522.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Diamond, E. L., Schneiderman, N., Schwartz, D., Smith, J. C., Vorp, R., & Pasin, R. D. (1984). Harassment, hostility, and Type A as determinants of cardiovascular reactivity during competition. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 7, 171–189.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Emmons, K. M., & Weidner, G. (1988). The effects of cognitive and physical stress on cardiovascular reactivity among smokers and oral contraceptive users. Psychophysiology, 25, 166–171.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Endler, N. S., & Parker, J. D. A. (1990). Multidimensional assessment of coping: A critical evaluation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 58, 844–854.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Engebretson, T. O., Matthews, K. A., & Scheier, M. F. (1989). Relations between anger expression and cardiovascular reactivity: Reconciling inconsistent findings through a matching hypothesis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57, 513–521.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Folkman, S., & Lazarus, R. S. (1988). Manual for the ways of coping questionnaire.. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.Google Scholar
  26. Fontana, A. F., Rosenberg, R. L., Marcus, J. L., & Kerns, R. D. (1987). Type A behavior pattern, inhibited power motivation, and activity inhibition. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52, 177–183.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Gastorf, J. W., & Teevan, R. C. (1980). Type A coronary-prone behavior and fear-of-failure. Motivation and Emotion, 4, 71–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Gentry, W. D., Chesney, A. P., Gary, H. E., Jr., Hall, R. P., & Harburg, E. (1982). Habitual anger-coping styles. I. Effect on mean blood pressure and risk for essential hypertension. Psychosomatic Medicine, 44, 195–202.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Glass, D. C., Krakoff, L. R., Contrada, R., Hilton, W. F., Kehoe, K., Mannucci, E. G., Collins, C., Snow, B., & Elting, E. (1980). Effects of harassment and competition on cardiovascular and plasma catecholaminergic responses in Type A and Type B individuals. Psychophysiology, 17, 453–463.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Glass, D. C., Lake, C. R., Contrada, R. J., Kehoe, K., & Erlanger, L. R. (1983). Stability of individual differences in physiological responses to stress. Health Psychology, 2, 317–341.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Gray, A., Jackson, D. N., & Howard, J. H. (1990). Identification of a coronary-prone profile for business managers: Comparison of three approaches to Type A assessment. Behavioral Medicine, 16, 67–75.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Harbin, T. J. (1989). The relationship between the Type A behavior pattern and physiological responsivity: A quantitative review. Psychophysiology, 26, 110–119.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Hardy, J. D., & Smith, T. W. (1988). Cynical hostility and vulnerability to disease: Social support, life stress, and physiological response to conflict. Health Psychology, 7, 447–459.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Haynes, S. G., & Matthews, K. A. (1988). The association of Type A behavior with cardiovascular disease: Update and critical review. In B. K. Houston & C. R. Snyder (Eds.), Type A behavior pattern: Research, theory, and intervention (pp. 51–82). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  35. Haynes, S. G., Levine, S., Scotch, N., Feinleib, M., & Kannel, W. B. (1978). The relationship of psychosocial factors to coronary heart disease in the Framingham Study. I. Methods and risk factors. American Journal of Epidemiology, 107, 362–383.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Haynes, S. G., Feinleib, M., & Kannel, W. B. (1980). The relationship of psychosocial factors to coronary heart disease in the Framingham Study. III. Eight-year incidence of coronary heart disease. American Journal of Epidemiology, 111, 37–58.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Hecker, M. H. L., Chesney, M. A., Black, G. W., & Frautschi, N. (1988). Coronary-prone behaviors in the Western Collaborative Group Study. Psychosomatic Medicine, 50, 153–164.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Hodges, W. F. (1968). Effects of ego threat and threat of pain on state anxiety. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 8, 364–378.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Holmes, D. S., & Will, M. J. (1985). Expression of interpersonal aggression by angered and nonangered persons with the Type A and Type B behavior patterns. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 48, 723–727.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Holroyd, K. A., & Gorkin, L. (1983). Young adults at risk for hypertension: Effects of family history and anger management in determining responses to interpersonal conflict. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 27, 131–138.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Holroyd, K. A., Westbrook, T., Wolf, M., & Badhorn, E. (1978). Performance, cognition, and physiological responding in test anxiety. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 87, 442–451.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Houston, B. K. (1972). Control over stress, locus of control, and response to stress. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 21, 249–255.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Houston, B. K. (1973). Viability of coping strategies, denial, and response to stress. Journal of Personality, 41, 50–58.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Houston, B. K. (1977). Dispositional anxiety and the effectiveness of cognitive coping strategies in stressful laboratory and classroom situations. In C. D. Spielberger & I. G. Sarason (Eds.), Stress and anxiety (Vol. 4, pp. 205–226). Washington, DC: Hemisphere.Google Scholar
  45. Houston, B. K. (1983). Psychophysiological responsivity and the Type A behavior pattern. Journal of Research in Personality, 17, 22–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Houston, B. K. (1988). Cardiovascular and neuroendocrine reactivity, global Type A, and components of Type A behavior. In B. K. Houston & C. R. Snyder (Eds.), Type A behavior pattern: Research, theory, and intervention (pp. 212–253). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  47. Houston, B. K., & Kelly, K. E. (1987). Type A behavior in housewives: Relation to work, marital adjustment, stress, tension, health, fear-of-failure and self esteem. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 31, 55–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Houston, B. K., Smith, M. A., & Cates, D. S. (1989). Hostility patterns and cardiovascular reactivity to stress. Psychophysiology, 26, 337–342.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Jenkins, C. D., Rosenman, R. H., & Zyzanski, S. J. (1974). Prediction of clinical coronary heart disease by a test for the coronary-prone behavior pattern. New England Journal of Medicine, 290, 1271–1275.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Jorgensen, R. S., & Houston, B. K. (1981). The Type A behavior pattern, sex differences, and cardiovascular response to and recovery from stress. Motivation and Emotion, 5, 201–214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Jorgensen, R. S., & Houston, B. K. (1988). Cardiovascular reactivity, hostility, and family history of hypertension. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 50, 216–222.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Kamarck, T. W., Manuck, S. B., & Jennings, J. R. (1990). Social support reduces cardiovascular reactivity to psychological challenge: A laboratory model. Psychosomatic Medicine, 52, 42–58.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Kaplan, J. R., Manuck, S. B., Clarkson, T. B., Lusso, F. M., & Taub, D. M. (1982). Social status, environment, and atherosclerosis in Cynomolgus monkeys. Arteriosclerosis, 2, 359–368.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Kaplan, J. R., Adams, M. R., Clarkson, T. B., & Koritnik, D. R. (1984). Psychosocial influences on female “protection” among cynomolgus macaques. Atherosclerosis, 53, 283–295.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. King, A. C., Taylor, C. B., Albright, C. A., & Haskell, W. L. (1990). The relationship between repressive and defensive coping styles and blood pressure responses in healthy, middle-aged men and women. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 34, 461–471.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Knight, M. L., & Borden, R. J. (1979). Autonomic and affective reactions of high and low sociallyanxious individuals awaiting public performance. Psychophysiology, 16, 209–213.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Krantz, D. S., Glass, D. C., & Snyder, M. L. (1974). Helplessness, stress level, and the coronaryprone behavior pattern. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 10, 284–300.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Krantz, D. S., Manuck, S. B., & Wing, R. R. (1986). Psychological Stressors and task variables as elicitors of reactivity. In K. A. Matthews, S. M. Weiss, T. Detre, T. M. Dembroski, B. Falkner, S. B. Manuck, & R. B. Williams, Jr. (Eds.), Handbook of stress, reactivity, and cardiovascular disease (pp. 85–107). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  59. Lake, B. W., Suarez, E. C., Schneiderman, N., & Tocci, N. (1985). The Type A behavior pattern, physical fitness, and psychophysiological reactivity. Health Psychology, 4, 169–187.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Lawler, K. A., & Schmied, L. A. (1986). Cardiovascular responsivity, Type A behavior, and parental history of heart disease in young women. Psychophysiology, 23, 28–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Lawler, K. A., Rixse, A., & Allen, M. T. (1983). Type A behavior and psychophysiological responses in adult women. Psychophysiology, 20, 343–350.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Lawler, K. A., Schmied, L., Mitchell, V. P., & Rixse, A. (1984). Type A behavior and physiological responsivity in young women. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 28, 197–204.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Lazarus, R. S. (1966). Psychological stress and the coping process. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  64. Lazarus, R. S., & Folkman, S. (1984). Stress, appraisal, and coping.. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.Google Scholar
  65. Lundberg, U., Hedman, M., Medlin, B., & Frankenhaeuser, M. (1989). Type A behavior in healthy males and females as related to physiological reactivity and blood lipids. Psychosomatic Medicine, 51, 113–122.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. McClelland, D. C. (1979). Inhibited power motivation and high blood pressure in men. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 88, 182–190.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. MacDougall, J. M., Dembroski, T. M., & Krantz, D. S. (1981). Effects of types of challenge on pressor and heart rate response in Type A and B women. Psychophysiology, 18, 1–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Manuck, S. B., & Garland, F. N., (1979). Coronary-prone behavior pattern, task incentive, and cardiovascular response. Psychophysiology, 16, 136–142.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Manuck, S. B., Craft, S., & Gold, K. J. (1978). Coronary-prone behavior pattern and cardiovascular response. Psychophysiology, 15, 403–411.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Manuck, S. B., Kaplan, J. R., & Clarkson, T. B. (1983). Behaviorally induced heart rate reactivity and atherosclerosis in Cynomolgus monkeys. Psychosomatic Medicine, 45, 95–108.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Matthews, K. A. (1982). Psychological perspectives on the Type A behavior pattern. Psychological Bulletin, 91, 292–323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Matthews, K. A. (1988). Coronary heart disease and Type A behaviors: Update on and alternative to the Booth-Kewley and Friedman (1987) quantitative review. Psychological Bulletin, 104, 373–380.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Mayes, B. T., Sime, W. E., & Ganster, D. C. (1984). Convergent validity of Type A behavior pattern scales and their ability to predict physiological responsiveness in a sample of female public employees. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 7, 83–108.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Medalie, J. H., Kahn, H. A., Neufeld, H. N., Riss, E., Goldbourt, U. (1973). Five year myocardial infarction incidence: II. Association of single variables to age and birthplace. Journal of Chronic Disease, 26, 329–349.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Miller, S. M. (1987). Monitoring and blunting: Validation of a questionnaire to assess styles of information-seeking under threat. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52, 345–353.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Mills, P. J., Schneider, R. H., & Dimsdale, J. E. (1989). Anger assessment and reactivity to stress. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 38(3), 379–382.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Morell, M. (1989). Psychophysiologic stress responsivity in Type A and B female college students and community women. Psychophysiology, 26, 359–368.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Pittner, M. S., Houston, B. K., & Spiridigliozzi, G. (1983). Control over stress, Type A behavior pattern, and response to stress. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 44, 627–637.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Rejeski, W. J., Gagne, M., Parker, P. E., & Koritnik, D. R. (1989). Acute stress reactivity from contested dominance in dominant and submissive males. Behavioral Medicine, 15, 118–124.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Rosenman, R. H. (1978). The interview method of assessment of the coronary-prone behavior pattern. In T. M. Dembroski, S. M. Weiss, J. L. Shields, S. G. Haynes, & M. Feinleib (Eds.), Coronary-prone behavior (pp. 55–69). Berlin: Springer-Verlag.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Rotter, J. (1966). Generalized expectancies for internal versus external control of reinforcement. Psychological Monographs, 80 (1, Whole No. 609).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Sallis, J. F., Johnson, C. C., Trevorrow, T. R., Kaplan, R. M., & Hovell, M. F. (1987). The relationship between cyclical hostility and blood pressure reactivity. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 31, 111–116.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Schmied, L. A., & Lawler, K. A. (1989). Control, Type A behavior and cardiovascular responsivity in adult women employed as clerical workers. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 33, 429–440.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Smith, M. A., & Houston, B. K. (1987). Hostility, anger expression, cardiovascular responsivity, and social support. Biological Psychology, 24, 39–48.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Smith, T. W., & Allred, K. D. (1989). Blood pressure responses during social interaction in high-and low-cynically hostile males. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 12, 135–143.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Smith, T. W., & Pope, M. K. (1990). Cynical hostility as a health risk: Current status and future directions. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 54, 77–88.Google Scholar
  87. Smith, T. W., Houston, B. K., & zurawski, R. M. (1984). Irrational beliefs and the arousal of emotional distress. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 31, 190–201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Smith, T. W., Houston, B. K., & Zurawski, R. M. (1985). The Framingham Type A Scale: Cardiovascular and cognitive-behavioral responses to interpersonal challenge. Motivation and Emotion, 9, 123–134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Smyth, K., Call, J., Hansell, S., Sparacino, J., & Strodtbeck, F. L. (1978). Type A behavior pattern and hypertension among inner-city black women. Nursing Research, 27, 30–35.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Stone, A. A., & Neale, J. M. (1984). New measure of daily coping: Development and preHminary results. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 46, 892–906.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Strube, M. J. (1989). Assessing subjects’ construal of the laboratory situation. In N. Schneiderman, S. M. Weiss, & P. G. Kaufmann (Eds.), Handbook of research methods in cardiovascular behavioral medicine (pp. 527–542). New York: Plenum Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Suarez, E. C., & Williams, R. B. (1989). Situational determinants of cardiovascular and emotional reactivity in high and low hostile men. Psychosomatic Medicine, 51, 404–418.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Tennenbaum, D. L., & Jacob, T. (1989). Observational methods for assessing psychological state. In N. Schneiderman, S. M. Weiss, & P. G. Kaufmann (Eds.), Handbook of research methods in cardiovascular behavioral medicine (pp. 543–569). New York: Plenum Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Ward, M. M., Chesney, M. A., Swan, G. E., Black, G. W., Parker, S. D., & Rosenman, R. H. (1986). Cardiovascular responses of Type A and Type B men to a series of Stressors. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 9, 43–49.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Warrenburg, S., Levine, J., Schwartz, G. E., Fontana, A. F., Kerns, R. D., Delaney, R., & Mattson, R. (1989). Defensive coping and blood pressure reactivity in medical patients. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 12, 407–424.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Weidner, G., Friend, R., Ficarrotto, T. J., & Mendell, N. R. (1989). Hostility and cardiovascular reactivity to stress in women and men. Psychosomatic Medicine, 51, 36–45.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Weinberger, D., Schwartz, G., & Davidson, R. (1979). Low anxious, high anxious, and repressive coping styles: Psychometric patterns and behavioral and physiological responses to stress. Journal of Abnormal Physiology, 88, 369–380.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Zurawski, R. M., & Houston, B. K. (1983). The Jenkins Activity Survey measure of Type A and frustration-induced anger. Motivation and Emotion, 7, 301–312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • B. Kent Houston
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of KansasLawrenceUSA

Personalised recommendations