Sibling Interaction

  • Douglas M. Teti
Part of the Perspectives in Developmental Psychology book series (PDPS)

Abstract

The study of sibling relationships is an underdeveloped and challenging arena in social and personality development. The dearth of research and theory about siblings is likely owed to traditional emphases on the parent-child relationship, in particular the mother-child dyad, and to the enormous diversity that characterizes sibling behavior. This diversity can create confusion among behavioral scientists who attempt to characterize siblings’ behavior along well-defined, conceptual themes. In part, this is because sibling relationships vary along a power-status continuum, which might be expected to influence both structural and qualitative aspects of sibling behavior. In addition, sibling relationships have frequently been described in terms of what are traditionally termed constellation variables, such as gender, family size, birth order, and birth spacing, each of which has played a role in discussions of sibling behaviors and influences (e.g., Wagner, Schubert, & Schubert, 1979; Zajonc & Markus, 1975). Finally, sibling relationships, especially in the early years, cannot be understood without consideration of the family contexts in which siblings develop.

Keywords

Child Development Birth Order Young Sibling Agonistic Behavior Sibling Relationship 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abramovitch, R., Corter, C., & Lando, B. (1979). Sibling interaction in the home. Child Development, 50, 997–1003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Abramovitch, R., Corter, C., & Pépier, D. (1980). Observations of mixed-sex sibling dyads. Child Development, 51, 1268–1271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Abramovitch, R., Corter, C., Pepler, D. J., & Stanhope, L. (1986). Sibling and peer interaction: A final follow-up and a comparison. Child Development, 57, 217–229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ainsworth, M. D. S., Blehar, M. C., Waters, E., & Wall, S. (1978). Patterns of attachment: A psychological study of the strange situation. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  5. Ainsworth, M. D. S., & Wittig, B. A. (1969). Attachment and exploratory behavior of one-year-olds in a strange situation. In B. M. Foss (Ed.), Determinants of infant behavior (Vol. 4, pp. 113–136). London: Methuen.Google Scholar
  6. Bank, S. P. (1987). Favoritism. Journal of Children in Contemporary Society, 19, 77–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bank, S. P., & Kahn, M. D. (1982). The sibling bond. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  8. Baskett, L. M. (1985). Sibling status effects: Adult expectations. Developmental Psychology, 21, 441–445.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bayley, N. (1969). The Bayley Scales of Infant Development. New York: Psychological Corporation.Google Scholar
  10. Berndt, T. J., & Bulleit, T. N. (1985). Effects of sibling relationships on preschoolers’ behavior at home and at school. Developmental Psychology, 21, 761–767.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bosso, R. (1985). Attachment quality and sibling relations: Responses of anxiously attached/avoidant and securely attached 18 to 32 month old firstborns toward their secondborn siblings. Dissertation Abstracts International, 47, 1293–B.Google Scholar
  12. Bowlby, J. (1969). Attachment and loss: Vol. 1. Attachment. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  13. Bretherton, I. (1985). Attachment theory: Retrospect and prospect. In I. Bretherton & E. Waters (Eds.), Growing points of attachment theory and research: Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development (pp. 3-35), 50, Serial No. 209, Nos. 1-2.Google Scholar
  14. Brody, G. H., & Stoneman, Z. (1987). Sibling conflict: Contributions of the siblings themselves, the parent-sibling relationship, and the broader family system. Journal of Children in Contemporary Society, 19, 39–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Brody, G. H., Stoneman, Z., & Burke, M. (1987). Child temperaments, maternal differential behavior, and sibling relationships. Developmental Psychology, 23, 354–362.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Brody, G. H., Stoneman, Z., & MacKinnon, C. (1982). Role asymmetries in interactions among school-aged children, their younger siblings, and their friends. Child Development, 53, 1364–1370.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Brody, G. H., Stoneman, Z., & MacKinnon, C. (1986). Contributions of maternal childrearing practices and interactional contexts to sibling interactions. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 7, 225–236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Brody, G. H., Stoneman, Z., MacKinnon, C. E., & MacKinnon, R. (1985). Role relationships and behavior between preschool-aged and school-aged sibling pairs. Developmental Psychology, 21, 124–129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Bryant, B. K., & Crockenberg, S. B. (1980). Correlates and dimensions of prosocial behavior: A study of female siblings with their mothers. Child Development, 51, 529–544.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Cicirelli, V G. (1967). Sibling constellation, creativity, IQ, and academic achievement. Child Development, 38, 481–490.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Cicirelli, V. G. (1972). The effect of sibling relationship on concept learning of young children taught by child-teachers. Child Development, 42, 282–287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Cicirelli, V G. (1973). Effects of sibling structure and interaction on children’s categorization style. Developmental Psychology, 9, 132–139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Cicirelli, V. G. (1974). Relationship of sibling structuring and interaction on younger sibling’s conceptual style. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 125, 36–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Cicirelli, V. G. (1975). Effects of mother and older sibling on the problem-solving behavior of the younger child. Developmental Psychology, 11, 749–756.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Cicirelli, V G. (1982). Sibling influence throughout the lifespan. In M. E. Lamb & B. Sutton-Smith (Eds.), Sibling relationships: Their nature and significance across the life span (pp. 267–284). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  26. Crnic, K. A., Greenberg, M. T., Ragozin, A. S., Robinson, N. M., & Basham, R. B. (1983). Effects of stress and social support on mothers and premature and full-term infants. Child Development, 54, 209–217.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Crockenberg, S. (1981). Infant irritability, mother responsiveness, and social support influences on the security of infant-mother attachment. Child Development, 52, 857–869.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Crockenberg, S. (1986). Are temperamental differences in babies associated with predictable differences in care-giving? In J. V Lerner & R. M. Lerner (Eds.), Temperament and social interaction in infants and children (pp. 53–74). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  29. Daniels, D. (1986). Differential experiences of siblings in the same family as predictors of adolescent sibling personality differences. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51, 339–346.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Daniels, D., Dunn, J., Furstenberg, F. E, & Plomin, R. (1985). Environmental differences within the family and adjustment differences within pairs of adolescent siblings. Child Development, 56, 764–774.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Daniels, D., & Plomin, R. (1985). Differential experience of siblings in the same family. Developmental Psychology, 21, 747–760.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Dunn, J. (1983). Sibling relationships in early childhood. Child Development, 54, 787–811.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Dunn, J. (1988). Annotation: Sibling influences on childhood development. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 29, 119–127.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Dunn, J. (1989). Siblings and the development of social understanding in early childhood. In P. G. Zukow (Ed.), Sibling interaction across cultures: Theoretical and methodological considerations (pp. 106–116). New York: Springer-Verlag.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Dunn, J., Bretherton, I., & Munn, P. (1987). Conversations about feeling states between mothers and their young children. Developmental Psychology, 23, 132–139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Dunn, J., & Kendrick, C. (1979). Interaction between young siblings in the context of family relations. In M. Lewis & L. Rosenblum (Eds.), The child and its family (pp. 143–169). New York: Plenum Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Dunn, J., & Kendrick, C. (1980). The arrival of a sibling: Changes in patterns of interaction between mother and firstborn child. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 21, 119–132.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Dunn, J., & Kendrick, C. (1981a). Social behavior of young siblings in the family context: Differences between same-sex and different-sexed dyads. Child Development, 52, 1265–1273.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Dunn, J., & Kendrick, C. (1981b). Interaction between young siblings: Association with the interaction between mother and firstborn. Developmental Psychology, 17, 336–343.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Dunn, J., & Kendrick, C. (1982a). Siblings: Love, envy, and understanding. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  41. Dunn, J., & Kendrick, C. (1982b). Siblings and their mothers: Developing relationships within the family. In M. E. Lamb & B. Sutton-Smith (Eds.), Sibling relationships: Their nature and significance across the lifespan (pp. 39–60). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  42. Dunn, J., & Kendrick, C. (1982c). The speech of two-and three-year-olds to infant siblings: “Baby talk” and the context of communication. Journal of Child Language, 9, 579–595.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Dunn, J., Kendrick, C., & MacNamee, R. (1981). The reaction of first-born children to the birth of a sibling: Mothers’ reports. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 22, 1–18.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Dunn, J., & Munn, P. (1985). Becoming a family member: Family conflict and the development of social understanding in the second year. Child Development, 56, 480–492.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Dunn, J., & Munn, P. (1986a). Becoming a family member: Family conflict and the development of social understanding in the second year. Child Development, 56, 480–492.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Dunn, J., & Munn, P. (1986b). Sibling quarrels and maternal intervention: Individual differences in understanding and aggression. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 27, 583–595.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Egeland, B., & Farber, E. A. (1984). Infant-mother attachment: Factors related to its development and changes over time. Child Development, 55, 753–771.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Field, T., & Reite, M. (1984). Children’s responses to separation from mother during the birth of another child. Child Development, 55, 1308–1316.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Furman, W., & Buhrmester, D. (1985). Children’s perceptions of the qualities of sibling relationships. Child Development, 56, 448–461.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Gallagher, J. J., & Vietze, P. M. (Eds.). (1986). Families of handicapped persons. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes.Google Scholar
  51. Gibbs, E. D., Teti, D. M., & Bond, L. A. (1987). Infant-sibling communication: Relationships to birth spacing and cognitive and linguistic development. Infant Behavior and Development, 10, 307–323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Gottlieb, L. N., & Mendelson, M. J. (1990). Parental support and firstborn girls’ adaptation to the birth of a sibling. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 11, 29–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Grotevant, H. D., Scarr, S., & Weinberg, R. A. (1977). Constellations with adopted and natural children: A test of the Zajonc and Markus model. Child Development, 48, 1699–1703.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Hesser, J., & Armitzia, M. (1989, April). The influence of siblings and non-siblings on children’s observation and imitation. Paper presented at the biennial meeting of the Society for Research in Child Development, Kansas City, KS.Google Scholar
  55. Hinde, R. A. (1979). Towards understanding relationships. London: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  56. Hoffman, M. L. (1975). Developmental synthesis of affect and cognition and its implications for altruistic motivation. Developmental Psychology, 11, 607–622.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Howe, N., & Ross, H. S. (1990). Socialization, perspective-taking, and the sibling relationship. Developmental Psychology, 26, 160–165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Irish, D. P (1964). Sibling interaction: A neglected aspect in family life research. Social Forces, 42, 279–288.Google Scholar
  59. Kendrick, C., & Dunn, J. (1980). Caring for a second child: Effects on the interaction between mother and firstborn. Developmental Psychology, 16, 303–311.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Kendrick, C., & Dunn, J. (1982). Protest or pleasure? The response of first-born children to interactions between their mothers and infant siblings. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 23, 117–129.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Kendrick, C., & Dunn, J. (1983). Sibling quarrels and maternal responses. Developmental Psychology, 19, 62–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Koch, H. L. (1954). The relation of “primary mental abilities” in five-and six-year-olds to sex of child and characteristics of his sibling. Child Development, 25, 209–223.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Koch, H. L. (1955). The relation of certain family constellation characteristics and the attitudes of children toward adults. Child Development, 26, 13–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Koch, H. L. (1956). Some emotional attitudes of the young child in relation to characteristics of his sibling. Child Development, 27, 393–426.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Koester, L. S., & Penny, J. M. (1987, September). Siblings as facilitators of exploratory play in young children. Paper presented at the British Psychological Society, Developmental Section Annual Conference, University of York, York, England.Google Scholar
  66. Kramer, L. (1990, April). Becoming a sibling: With a little help from my friends. In M. Mendelson (Chair), Becoming a sibling: Adjustment, roles, and relationships. Symposium conducted at the 7th International Conference on Infant Studies, Montreal.Google Scholar
  67. Lamb, M. E. (1978a). Interactions between 18-month-olds and their preschool-aged siblings. Child Development, 49, 51–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Lamb, M. E. (1978b). The development of sibling relationships in infancy: A short-term longitudinal study. Child Development, 49, 1189–1196.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Legg, C., Sherick, I., & Wadland, W (1974). Reaction of preschool children to the birth of a sibling. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 5, 3–39.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Lerner, J. V, & Lerner, R. M. (Eds.). (1986). Temperament and social interaction in infants and young children. New Directions for Child Development (W. Damon, Editor-in-Chief, pp. 53–73). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  71. Levy, D. M. (1934). Rivalry between children of the same family. Child Study, 11, 233–261.Google Scholar
  72. Lobato, D. J. (1983). Siblings of handicapped children: A review. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 13, 347–364.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Minnett, A. M., Vandell, D. L., & Santrock, J. W (1983). The effects of sibling status on sibling interaction: Influence of birth order, age spacing, sex of child, and sex of sibling. Child Development, 54, 1064–1072.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Moore, T. (1969). Stress in normal childhood. Human Relations, 22, 235–250.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Nadelman, L., & Begun, A. (1982). The effect of the newborn on the older sibling: Mothers’ questionnaires. In M. E. Lamb & B. Sutton-Smith (Eds.), Sibling relationships: Their nature and significance across the lifespan (pp. 13–37). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  76. Pelletier-Stiefel, J., Pepler, D., Crozier, K., Stanhope, L., Corter, C., & Abramovitch, R. (1986). Nurtur-ance in the home: A longitudinal study of sibling interaction. In A. Fogel & G. F. Melson (Eds.), Origins of nurturance: Developmental, biological and cultural perspectives on caregiving (pp. 3–24). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  77. Pépier, D. (1981, April). Naturalistic observations of teaching and modeling between siblings. Paper presented at the Biennial meeting of the Society for Research in Child Development, Boston.Google Scholar
  78. Pepler, D. J., Abramovitch, R., & Corter, C. (1981). Sibling interaction in the home: A longitudinal study. Child Development, 52, 1344–1347.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Pfouts, J. H. (1980). Birth order, age-spacing, IQ differences, and family relations. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 42, 517–531.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Piaget, J. (1965). The moral judgment of the child. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  81. Plomin, R., & Daniels, D. (1987). Why are children in the same family so different from one another? Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 10, 1–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Powell, T. H., & Ahrenhold, E O. (1985). Brothers and sisters: A special part of exceptional families. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes.Google Scholar
  83. Powell, T. H., & Ogle, P. A. (1985). Brothers and Sisters—A special part of exceptional families. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes.Google Scholar
  84. Rosenberg, B. G. (1982). Life span personality stability in sibling status. In M. E. Lamb & B. Sutton-Smith (Eds.), Sibling relationships: Their nature and significance across the lifespan (pp. 167–224). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  85. Rosenberg, B. G., & Sutton-Smith, B. (1969). Sibling age spacing effects upon cognition. Developmental Psychology, 1, 661–668.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Rowe, D. C., & Plomin, R. (1981). The importance of nonshared (E1) environmental influences in behavioral development. Developmental Psychology, 17, 517–531.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Samuels, H. R. (1980). The effect of an older sibling on infant locomotor exploration of a new environment. Child Development, 51, 607–609.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Scarr, S., & Grajek, S. (1982). Similarities and differences among siblings. In M. E. Lamb & B. Sutton-Smith (Eds.), Sibling relationships: Their nature and significance across the lifespan (pp. 357–381). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  89. Schachter, F. F. (1982). Sibling deidentification and split-parent identification: A family tetrad. In M. E. Lamb & B. Sutton-Smith (Eds.), Sibling relationships: Their nature and significance across the lifespan (pp. 123–151). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  90. Schachter, F. F., & Stone, R. K. (1987). Comparing and contrasting siblings: Defining the self. Journal of Children in Contemporary Society, 19, 55–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Schooler, C. (1972). Birth order effects. Psychological Bulletin, 78, 161–175.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Schoonover, S. M. (1959). The relationship of intelligence and achievement to birth order, sex of sibling, and age interval. Journal of Educational Psychology, 50, 143–146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Sewall, M. (1930). Some causes of jealousy in young children. Smith College Studies in Social Work, 1, 6–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Smalley, R. (1930). The influences of differences in age, sex, and intelligence in determining attitudes of siblings toward each other. Smith College Studies in Social Work, 1, 23–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Sroufe, L. A., & Fleeson, J. (1986). Attachment and the construction of relationships. In W. Hartup & Z. Rubin (Eds.), The nature and development of relationships (pp. 51–71). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  96. Steelman, L. C. (1985). A tale of two variables: A review of the intellectual consequences of sibship size and birth order. Review of Educational Research, 55, 353–386.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Stewart, R. B. (1983). Sibling attachment relationships: Child-infant interactions in the Strange Situation. Developmental Psychology, 19, 192–199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Stewart, R. B., & Marvin, R. S. (1984). Sibling relations: The role of conceptual perspective-taking in the ontogeny of sibling caregiving. Child Development, 55, 1322–1332.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Stewart, R. B., Mobley, L. A., Van Tuyl, S. S., & Salvador, M. A. (1987). The firstborn’s adjustment to the birth of a sibling: A longitudinal assessment. Child Development, 58, 341–355.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Stillwell, R., & Dunn, J. (1985). Continuities in sibling relationships: Patterns of aggression and friendliness. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 26, 627–637.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Stocker, C., Dunn, J., & Plomin, R. (1989). Sibling relationships: Links with child temperament, maternal behavior, and family structure. Child Development, 60, 715–727.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Stoneman, Z., Brody, G. H., & MacKinnon, C. (1984). Naturalistic observations of children’s roles and activities while playing with their siblings and friends. Child Development, 55, 617–627.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Stoneman, Z., Brody, G. H., & MacKinnon, C. E. (1986). Same-sex and cross-sex siblings: Activity choices, roles, behavior, and gender stereotypes. Sex Roles, 15, 495–511.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Sutton-Smith, B. (1982). Birth order and sibling status effects. In M. E. Lamb & B. Sutton-Smith (Eds.), Sibling relationships: Their nature and significance across the life span (pp. 153–165). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  105. Sutton-Smith, B., & Rosenberg, B. G. (1970). The sibling. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.Google Scholar
  106. Taylor, M. K., & Kogan, K. L. (1973). Effects of birth of a sibling on mother-child interaction. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 4, 53–58.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Terman, L. M., & Merrill, M. A. (1973). Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale: Manual for the third revision, form L-M. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.Google Scholar
  108. Teti, D. M., & Ablard, K. E. (1989). Security of attachment and infant-sibling relationships: A laboratory study. Child Development, 60, 1519–1528.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Teti, D. M., Bond, L. A., & Gibbs, E. D. (1986). Sibling-created experiences: Relationships to birth-spacing and infant cognitive development. Infant Behavior and Development, 9, 27–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Teti, D. M., Gibbs, E. D., & Bond, L. A. (1989). Sibling interaction, birth spacing, and intellectual/linguistic development. In P. G. Zukow (Ed.), Sibling interaction across cultures: Theoretical and methodological issues (pp. 117–139). New York: Springer-Verlag.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Teti, D. M., & Nakagawa, M. (1990). Assessing attachment in infancy: The Strange Situation and alternate systems. In E. D. Gibbs & D. M. Teti (Eds.), Interdisciplinary assessment of infants: A guide for early intervention professionals (pp. 191–214). Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes.Google Scholar
  112. Teti, D. M., Nakagawa, M, Das, R., & Wirth, O. (1990). Security of attachment between preschoolers and their mothers: Relations among social interaction, parenting stress, and the attachment Q-Set. Unpublished manuscript, University of Maryland Baltimore County.Google Scholar
  113. Thomas, A., Birch, H. G., Chess, S., & Robbins, A. (1961). Individuality in responses of children to similar environmental situations. American Journal of Psychiatry, 117, 798–803.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Tomasello, M., & Mannle, S. (1985). Pragmatics of sibling speech to one-year-olds. Child Development, 56, 911–917.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Trause, M. A., Voos, D., Rudd, C., Klaus, M., Kennell, J., & Boslett, M. (1981). Separation for childbirth: The effect on the sibling. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 12, 32–39.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Vandell, D. L. (1982). Encounters between infants and their preschool-aged siblings during the first year. Unpublished manuscript, University of Texas at Dallas.Google Scholar
  117. Vandell, D. L. (1987). Baby sister/baby brother: Reactions to the birth of a sibling and patterns of early sibling relations. Journal of Children in Contemporary Society, 19, 13–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Vandell, D. L., Minnett, A. M., & Santrock, J. W. (1987). Age differences in sibling relationships during middle childhood. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 8, 247–257.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Vandell, D. L., Minnett, A. M., Johnson, B. S., & Santrock, J. W. (1990). Siblings and friends: Experiences of school-aged children. Unpublished manuscript, University of Texas at Dallas.Google Scholar
  120. Vandell, D. L., & Wilson, K. S. (1987). Infants’ interactions with mother, sibling, and peer: Contrasts and relations between interaction systems. Child Development, 58, 176–186.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Wagner, M. E., Schubert, H. J. P., & Schubert, D. S. P. (1979). Sibship-constellation effects on psychosocial development, creativity, and health. Advances in Child Development and Behavior, 14, 57–148.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Waters, E., & Deane, K. E. (1985). Defining and assessing individual differences in attachment relationships: Q-methodology and the organization of behavior in infancy and early childhood. In I. Bretherton & E. Waters (Eds.), Growing points of attachment theory and research: Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development (pp. 41-65), 50, Serial No. 209, Nos. 1-2.Google Scholar
  123. Winnicott, D. W. (1964). The child, the family and the outside world. London: Penguin Books.Google Scholar
  124. Wishart, J. G. (1986). Siblings as models in early infant learning. Child Development, 57, 1232–1240.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Zajonc, R. B. (1976). Family configuration and intelligence. Science, 192, 227–236.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Zajonc, R. B., & Markus, G. B. (1975). Birth order and intellectual development. Psychological Review, 82, 74–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Zajonc, R. B., Markus, H., & Markus, G. B. (1979). The birth order puzzle. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 37, 1325–1341.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • Douglas M. Teti
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of Maryland Baltimore CountyBaltimoreUSA

Personalised recommendations