Widowhood and Bereavement in Late Life

  • Richard K. Morycz
Part of the Perspectives in Developmental Psychology book series (PDPS)


Loss is a part of life and grief is a universal response to loss. Throughout a person’s life, a variety of losses can occur: losses that are a normal part of a particular life stage, losses that are part of a culture or society in which one lives, and losses that are a product of an interaction betweem other losses. For example, one may lose a relationship due to death or disability or a divorce and be relocated because of a job. The result is a loss of social interaction. As one ages, losses occur with more variety, more frequency, and less time between them. Losses can include a change or loss in role, ownership, physical or mental capacity, finances, group or club membership, environment, relationship, neighborhood or community, and social interaction or contact. These major losses are sources of grief and causes of stress; the losses can occur so close to each other in time that another loss happens before the person gets over the previous loss. Life can be a chain of losses, and the most recent loss can resurrect old, seemingly unrelated losses and make a person feel quite inadequate. Time may not necessarily be the great healer.


Social Support Life Satisfaction Stressful Life Event Adult Child Depressive Symptomatology 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Anderson, T. S. (1984). Widowhood as a life transition: Its impact on kinship ties. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 46, 105–114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Arens, D. A. (1983). Widowhood and well-being: An examination of sex differences within a causal model. International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 15, 27–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Arling, G. (1976). The elderly widow and her family, neighbors, and friends. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 38, 757–768.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Atchley, R. C. (1975). Dimensions of widowhood in later life. The Gerontologist, 15, 1976–1978.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Balkwell, C. (1981). Transition to widowhood: A review of the literature. Family Relations, 30, 117–127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Ball, J. F. (1976–1977). Widow’s grief: The impact of age and mode of depth. Omega, 1, 307–333.Google Scholar
  7. Baltes, P. B., Reese, H. W, & Lipsitt, L. P. (1980). Life-span developmental psychology. Annual Review of Psychology, 31, 65–110.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Berado, F. M. (1970). Survivorship and social isolation: The case of the aged widower. Family Coordinator, 19, 11–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Berkson, J. (1962). Mortality and marital status. American Journal of Public Health, 52, 1318–1329.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Bowlby, J. (1980). Attachment and loss: Loss, sadness, and depression. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  11. Bowling, A. (1988–1989). Who dies after widow(er)hood? A discriminant analysis. Omega, 19, 135–153.Google Scholar
  12. Breckenridge, J. N., Gallagher, D., Thompson, L. W, & Peterson, J. (1986). Characteristic depressive symptoms of bereaved elders. Journal of Gerontology, 41, 163–168.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Burks, V K., Lund, D. A., Gregg, C. H., & Bluhm, H. P. (1988). Bereavement and remarriage for older adults. Death Studies, 12, 51–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Butler, R. N. & Lewis, M. I. (1977). Aging and mental health: Positive psychosocial approaches. St. Louis: C.V Mosby.Google Scholar
  15. Carey, R. S. (1979). Weathering widowhood: Problems and adjustment of the widowed during the first year. Omega, 10, 163–174.Google Scholar
  16. Charmaz, K. (1980). The social reality of death. Boston: Addison-Wesley.Google Scholar
  17. Clayton, P. J. (1974). Mortality and morbidity in the first year of bereavement. Archives of General Psychiatry, 30, 747–750.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Clayton, P. J. (1975). The effect of living alone on bereavement symptoms. American Journal of Psychiatry, 132, 133–137.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Clayton, P. J. (1979). The sequelae and nonsequelae of conjugal bereavement. American Journal of Psychiatry, 126, 1530–1534.Google Scholar
  20. Clayton, P. J. & Darvish, H. S. (1979). Course of depressive symptoms following the stress of bereavement. In J. D. Barrett (Ed.), Stress and mental disorder (pp. 121–136). New York: Raven Press.Google Scholar
  21. Clayton, P., Halikas, J., & Maurice W. (1971). The bereavement of the widowed. Diseases of the Nervous System, 32, 597–604.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Clayton, P. J., Halikas, J. A., & Maurice, W. L. (1972). The depression of widowhood. British Journal of Psychiatry, 120, 71–78.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Clayton, P. J., Halikas, J. A., Maurice, W. L., & Robins, E. (1973). Anticipatory grief and widowhood. British Journal of Psychiatry, 122, 47–51.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Cleveland, W P & Gianturco, D. T. (1976). Remarriage probability after widowhood: A retrospective method. Journal of Gerontology, 31, 99–103.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Costa, P. T., Jr., Zonderman, A. B. & McCrae, R. R. (1985). Longitudinal course of social support among men in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. In I. Sarason & B. R. Sarason (Eds.), Social support: Theory, research, and applications (pp. 87–154). The Hague, The Netherlands: Nijhoff.Google Scholar
  26. Cowan, M. E., & Murphy, S. A. (1985). Identification of post-disaster bereavement risk predictors. Nursing Research, 34, 71–75.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Cox, P. R., & Ford, J. R. (1964). The mortality of widows after widowhood. Lancet, 1.Google Scholar
  28. Cummings, E., & Henry, E. W. (1961). Growing old: The process of disengagement. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  29. DeVaul, R. A., & Zisook, S. (1976). Unresolved grief: Clinical considerations. Postgraduate Medicine, 59, 267–271.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Dimond, M. (1981). Bereavement and the elderly: A critical review with implications for nursing practice and research. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 6, 461–470.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Dimond, M., Lund, D. A., & Easerta, M. S. (1987). The role of social support in the first two years of bereavement in an elderly sample. The Gerontologist, 27, 599–604.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Dohrenwend, B. S. & Dohrenwend, B. P. (1984). Stressful life events and their contexts. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.Google Scholar
  33. Durkheim, E. (1951). Suicide. New York: The Free Press.Google Scholar
  34. Eichorn, D., Clausen, J., Haan, N., Honzik, M., & Mussen, P. (1981). Present and past in middle life. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  35. Eisenbruch, M. (1984). Cross cultural aspects of bereavement II: Ethnic and cultural variations in the development of bereavement practices. Culture, Medicine, and Psychiatry, 8, 315–347.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Elkowitz, E. B., & Virginia, A. T. (1980). Relationship of depression to physical and psychological complaints in the widowed elderly. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 28(11), 507–510.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Elwell, F., & Maltbie-Crannel, A. D. (1981). The impact of the role loss upon coping resources and life satisfaction of the elderly. Journal of Gerontology, 26, 223–232.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Epstein, G., Weitz, L., Roback, H., & McKee, E. (1975). Research on bereavement: A selective and critical review. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 16, 537–546.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Essa, M. (1986). Grief as a crisis: Psychotherapeutic interventions with elderly bereaved. American Journal of Psychotherapy, 40(2), 243–251.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Faberow, N. L., Gallagher, D. E., Gilewski, M. J., & Thompson, L. W. (1987). An examination of the long impact of bereavement on psychological distress in survivors of suicide. The Gerontologist, 27, 592–598.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Ferraro, K. F. (1984). Widowhood and social participation in later life: Isolation or compensation. Research on Aging, 6, 451–468.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Fulton, R., & Gottesman, D. J. (1980). Anticipatory grief: A psychosocial concept reconsidered. British Journal of Psychiatry, 137, 45.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Gabriel, R. M., & Kirschling, J. M. (1989). Assessing grief among the bereaved elderly: A review of existing measures. Hospice Journal, 5, 29–54.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Gallagher, D. (1986). Assessment of depression in elders by interview methods and psychiatric rating scales. In L. Poon, B. Gurland, C. Eisdorfer, T. Crook, L. Thompson, A. Kazniak, & K. Davis (Eds.), Handbook of clinical memory assessment (pp. 202–212). Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Gallagher, D., Breckenridge, J., Thompson, L. W, & Peterson, J. (1982). Effects of bereavement on indicators of mental health in elderly widows and widowers. Journal of Gerontology, 38, 565–571.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Gallagher, D., Breckenridge, J., Thompson, L. W, & Peterson, J. (1983). Change over time and prediction of one-year post-bereavement status: Selected results from the USC longitudinal study of elders adaptation to spousal bereavement. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Gerontological Society of America, San Francisco, November.Google Scholar
  47. Gallagher, D. E., Thompson, L. W, & Peterson, J. A. (1981–1982). Psychosocial factors affecting adaptation to bereavement in the elderly. International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 14(2), 79–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Gass, K. A. (1988). Aged widows and widowers: Similarities and differences in appraisal, coping, resources, type of death, and health dysfunction. Archives of Psychiatric Nursing, 2(4), 200–210.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Gass, K., & Chang, A. S. (1989). Appraisals of bereavement, coping, resources, and psychosocial health dysfunction in widows and widowers. Nursing Research, 38(1), 31–36.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Gentry, J., & Shulman, A. D. (1988). Remarriage as a coping response for widowhood. Psychology and Aging, 3(2), 191–196.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. George, L. K. (1980). Role transitions in later life: A social stress perspective. Monterey, CA: Brooks/Cole.Google Scholar
  52. Gilford, D. M. (Ed.). (1988). The aging population in the twenty-first century: Statistics for health policy. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.Google Scholar
  53. Glick, I. Q., Weiss, R. S., & Parkes, C. M. (1974). The first year of bereavement. New York: Wiley-Interscience.Google Scholar
  54. Gorer, G. (1965). Death, grief, and mourning. New York: Doubleday.Google Scholar
  55. Gove, W. R. (1972). The relationship between sex roles, marital status, and mental illness. Social Forces, 51, 34–44.Google Scholar
  56. Greenblatt, M. (1978). The grieving spouse. American Journal of Psychiatry, 135, 43–47.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Gubrium, J. E (1974). Marital desolation and the evaluation of everyday life in old age. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 36, 97–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Hansson, R. Q., Jones, W. J., & Carpenter, B. N. (1984). Relational competence and social support. In P. Shaver (Ed.), Review of personality and social psychology (Vol. 5, pp. 265–884). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  59. Hansson, R. Q., Jones, W. H., Carpenter, B. N., & Remondet, J. H. (1986). Loneliness and adjustment to old age. International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 24(1), 41–53.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Hansson, R. O., & Remondet, J. H. (1988). Old age and widowhood: Issues of personal control and independence. Journal of Social Issues, 44, 159–174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Hartwigsen, G. (1987). Older widows and the transference of home. International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 25(3), 195–207.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Heinemann, G. (1982). Why study widowed women: A rationale. Women and Health, 7, 17–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Helsing, K. J., Comstock, G. W., & Szklo, M. (1982). Causes of death in a widowed population. American Journal of Epidemiology, 116, 524–532.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Helsing, K. J., & Szklo, M. (1981). Mortality after bereavement. American Journal of Epidemiology, 114, 41–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Helsing, K. J., Szklo, M, & Comstock, G. W. (1981). Factors associated with mortality after widowhood. American Journal of Public Health, 71, 802–809.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Heyman, D. K., & Gianturco, D. T. (1973). Long-term adaptation by the elderly in bereavement. Journal of Gerontology, 28, 359–362.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Hill, C. D., Thompson, L. W., & Gallagher, D. (1988). The role of anticipatory bereavement in older women’s adjustment to widowhood. The Gerontologist, 28(6), 792–796.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Hogan, R., Jones, W. H., & Cheek, J. M. (1984). Socio-analytic theory: An alternative to armadillo psychology. In B. Schlenker (Ed.), Seifand identity: Presentations of self in social life (pp. 175–198). New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  69. Holmes, T. H., & Rahe, R. H. (1967). The social adjustment rating scale. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 11, 213–218.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Horowitz, J. J. (1986). Stress-response syndromes: A review of post-traumatic and adjustment disorder. Hospital and Community Psychiatry, 37, 241–248.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Jacobs, S. (1977). An epidemiological review of the mortality of bereavement. Psychosomatic Medicine, 39, 344–357.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Jacobs, S., & Douglas, L. (1979). Grief: A mediating process between loss and illness. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 20, 165.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Jacobs, S., Hansen, F., Berkman, L., Kashl, S., & Ostfeld, A. (1989). Depressions of bereavement. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 30(3), 218–224.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Jacobs, S., Kasl, S., Ostfeld, A., Berkman, L., & Charpentier, P. (1986). The measurement of grief: Age and sex variation. British Journal of Medical Psychology, 59, 305–310.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Jacobs, S. C., Mason, J. W., Kosten, T. R., Wahby, V., Kasl, S. V, & Ostfeld, A. M. (1986). Bereavement and catecholamines. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 30(4), 489–496.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Jacobs, S., & Ostfeld, A. (1977). An epidemiological review of the mortality of bereavement. Psychosomatic Medicine, 39(5), 344–357.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Johnson, R. J., Lund, D. A., & Dimond, M. F. (1986). Stress, self-esteem and coping during bereavement among the elderly. Social Psychology Quarterly, 49(3), 273–279.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Kalish, R. A. (1987). Older people and grief. Generations, 11, 33–38.Google Scholar
  79. Kaprio, J., Koskenvuo, M., & Rita, H. (1987). Mortality after bereavement: A prospective study of 95,647 widowed persons. American Journal of Public Health, 77, 283–287.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Katz, S., & Florian, V. (1987). A comprehensive theoretical model of psychological reaction to loss. International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine, 16, 325–345.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Kavanaugh, R. G. (1972). Facing death. Baltimore: Penguin Books.Google Scholar
  82. Keith, P. M., & Lorenz, F. O. (1989). Financial strain and health of unmarried older people. The Gerontologist, 29, 684–691.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Kobassa, S. C., Maddi, S. R., & Kahn, S. (1982). Hardiness and health: A prospective study. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 42, 168–177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Kovar, M. G. (1986). Aging in the eighties: Preliminary data from the supplement on aging to the National Health Interview Survey. NCHS Advance Data No. 115:3. Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  85. Kowalski, N. C. (1986). Anticipating the death of an elderly parent. In T. A. Rando (Ed.), Loss and anticipatory grief (pp. 187–199). Lexington, KY: Lexington Books.Google Scholar
  86. Lawton, M. P., & Nahemow, L. (1973). Ecotosy and the aging process. In C. Eisdorfer & M. P. Lawton (Eds.), Psychology of adult development and aging. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  87. Laudenslager, M. L., & Reite, M. L. (1984). Losses and separations: Immunological consequences and health implications. Review of Personality and Social Psychology, 5, 285–312.Google Scholar
  88. Leon, R., Gillum, B., Gillum, R., & Gouze, M. (1979). Personality stability over a thirty-year period—middle age to old age. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 23, 245–259.Google Scholar
  89. Lindemann, E. (1944). Symptomatology and management of acute grief. American Journal of Psychiatry, 101, 141–148.Google Scholar
  90. Lloyd, C. (1980). Life events and depressive disorder reviewed. Archives of General Psychiatry, 37, 529.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Lopata, H. Z. (1973). Widowhood in an American city. Cambridge, MA: Schenkman.Google Scholar
  92. Lopata, H. Z. (1975). On widowhood: Grief work and identity reconstruction. Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 8(1), 41–45.Google Scholar
  93. Lopata, H. Z. (1979). Women as widows: Support systems. New York: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  94. Lopata, H. Z. (1986) Time in anticipated future and events in memory. American Behavioral Scientist, 29(6), 695–709.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Lopata, H. Z. (1987). Widowhood and husband santification. Journal of Marriage and Family, 43(2), 432–450.Google Scholar
  96. Lopata, H. Z. (1988). Support systems of American urban widowhood. Journal of Social Issues, 44, 113–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Lund, D. A., Caserta, M. S., & Dimond, M. F. (1985). The impact of bereavement on the subjective well-being of older adults. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Gerontological Society of America, New Orleans, November.Google Scholar
  98. Lund, D. A., Caserta, M. S., & Dimond, M. F. (1985–1986). Identifying elderly with coping difficulties after two years of bereavement. Omega, 16, 213–224.Google Scholar
  99. Lund, D. A., Caserta, M. S., & Dimond, M. F. (1986). Gender differences through two years of bereavement among the elderly. The Gerontologist, 26, 314–320.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Lund, D. A., Caserata, M. S., Dimond, M. F., & Gray, R. M. (1986). Impact of bereavement on the self-conceptions of older surviving spouses. Symbolic Interaction, 9, 235–244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Lundin, J. (1984). Morbidity following sudden and unexpected bereavement. British Journal of Psychiatry, 144, 84–88.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Maddison, D. (1968). The relevance of conjugal bereavement for preventive psychiatry. British Journal of Medical Psychology, 41, 223–233.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Maddison, D., & Walker, W. L. (1967). Factors affecting the outcome of conjugal bereavement. British Journal of Psychiatry, 113, 1057–1067.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Maddison, D. C., & Viola, A. (1968). The health of widows in the year following bereavement. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 12, 297.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Marmar, C. R., Horowitz, J. J., Weiss, D. S., Wilner, N. R., & Kaltreider, N. B. (1988). A controlled trial of brief psychotherapy and mutual-help group treatment of conjugal bereavement. American Journal of Psychiatry, 145(2), 203–209.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Marris, P. (1974). Loss and change. New York: Pantheon Books.Google Scholar
  107. McCrae, R. R. (1982). Age differences in the use of coping mechanisms. Journal of Gerontology, 37, 454–460.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. McCrae, R. R., & Costa, P. T., Jr. (1984). Emerging lives, enduring dispositions: Personality in adulthood. Boston: Little, Brown.Google Scholar
  109. McCrae, R. R. & Costa, P. T., Jr. (1988). Psychological resilience among widowed men and women: A 10-year follow-up of a national sample. Journal of Social Issues, 44, 129–142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. McMahon, B., & Pugh, T. F (1965). Suicide in the widowed. American Journal of Epidemiology, 81, 23.Google Scholar
  111. Middleton, W, & Raphael, B. (1987). Bereavement: State of the art and state of the science. Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 10(3), 329–343.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Mor, V., McHorney, C., & Sherwood, S. (1986). Secondary morbidity among the recently bereaved. American Journal of Psychiatry, 143, 158–163.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Morgan, L. A. (1976). A re-examination of widowhood and morale. Journal of Gerontology, 31, 687–695.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Morgan, L. (1986). The financial experience of widowed women: Evidence from the LRHS. The Gerontologist, 26, 663–668.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Morgan, D. (1989). Adjusting to widowhood: Do social networks really make it easier? The Gerontologist, 29, 101–107.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Moss, M. S., & Moss, S. J. (1980). The image of the deceased spouse in remarriage of elderly widow(er)s. Journal of Gerontological Social Work, 3, 59–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Murrell, S. A., & Himmelfarb, S. (1989). Effects of attachment bereavement and pre-event conditions on subsequent depressive symptoms in older adults. Psychology and Aging, 4(2), 166–172.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Murrell, S. A., Himmelfarb, S., & Phifer, J. F. (1988). Effects of bereavement/loss and pre-event status on subsequent physical health in older adults. International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 27, 87–107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Neugarten, B. (1968). Adult personality: Toward a psychology of the life-cycle. In B. Neugarten (Ed.), Middle age and aging (pp. 137–147). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  120. Neugarten, B. (1970). Dynamics of transitions of middle age to old age: Adaptation and the life cycle. Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 4, 71–87.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Neugarten, B. L., & Guttman, D. L. (1964). Age-sex roles and personality in middle age: A thematic apperception study. In B. L. Neugarten & Associates (Eds.), Personality in middle and late life (pp. 58–71). New York: Atherton.Google Scholar
  122. Noms, F., & Murrell, S. (1987). Transitory impact of life-event stress on psychological symptoms in older adults. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 28, 197–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Northcott, H. C. (1984). Widowhood and remarriage trends in Canada 1956–1981. Canadian Journal on Aging, 3, 63–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. O’Bryant, S. L., & Morgan, K. A. (1989). Financial experience and well-being among mature widowed women. The Gerontologist, 29, 245–251.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Osterweis, M., Solomon, F., & Green, M. (Eds.). (1984). Bereavement: Reactions, consequences, and care. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.Google Scholar
  126. Palmore, E., Cleveland, W. Nowlin, J., Ramm, D., & Siegler, I. (1979). Stress and adaptation in later life. Journal of Gerontology, 34, 841–851.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Parkes, C. M. (1970). The first year of bereavement: A longitudinal study of the reaction of London widows to the deaths of their husbands. Psychiatry, 33, 44–467.Google Scholar
  128. Parkes, C. M. (1975). Determinants of outcome following bereavement. Omega, 6, 303–323.Google Scholar
  129. Parkes, C. M. (1985). Bereavement. British Journal of Psychiatry, 146, 11–17.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Parkes, C. M., Benjamin, B., & Fitzgerald, R. G. (1969). Broken heart: A statistical study of increased mortality among widowers. British Medical Journal, I, 740–743.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Parkes, C. M., & Brown, R. (1972). Health after bereavement: a controlled study of young Boston widows and widowers. Psychosomatic Medicine, 34, 449–461.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Parkes, C. M., & Weiss, R. S. (1983). Recovery from bereavement. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  133. Pearlin, L. I., Lieberman, M. A., Menaghan, E. G., & Mullen, J. T. (1981). The stress process. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 22, 337–356.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Peterson, J. A. (1980). Social-psychological aspects of death and dying and mental health. In J. E. Birren & R. B. Sloane (Eds.), (Handbook of mental health and aging (pp. 922–942). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  135. Pettingale, K. W., Watson, M., Tee, D. E., & Inayat, Q. (1989). Pathological grief, psychiatric symptoms and immune status following conjugal bereavement. Stress Medicine, 5, 77–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Pihlblad, C. T., & Adams, D. L. (1972). Widowhood, social participation and life satisfaction. Aging and Human Development, 3, 323–330.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Rando, T. A. (1983). An investigation of grief and adaptation in parents whose children have died from cancer. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 8, 3–20.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Rando, T. A. (1984). Grief, dying, and death: Clinical intervention for caregivers. Champaign, IL: Research Press Company.Google Scholar
  139. Rando, T. A. (1986). A comprehensive analysis of anticipatory grief: Perspectives, processes, promises, and problems. In T. A. Rando (Ed.), Loss and anticipatory grief (pp. 3–37). Lexington, KY: Lexington Books.Google Scholar
  140. Raphael, B. (1977). Preventive intervention with the recently bereaved. Archives of General Psychiatry, 34, 1450.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Raphael, B. (1983). The anatomy of bereavement. London: Hutchinson.Google Scholar
  142. Raphael, B. (1986). When disaster strikes. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  143. Rees, W, & Lutkins, S. G. (1967). Mortality and bereavement. British Medical Journal, 4, 13–16.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Rodin, J. (1986). Aging and health: Effects of the sense of control. Science, 223, 1271–1276.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Rowland, K. F. (1977). Environmental events predicting death for the elderly. Psychological Bulletin, 84, 349–372.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Sanders, C. M. (1980–1981). A comparison of younger and older spouses in bereavement outcome. Omega, 11, 217–232.Google Scholar
  147. Sanders, C. M. (1988). Risk factors in bereavement outcome. Journal of Social Issues, 44, 97–112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Sanders, C. M., Mauger, P A., & Strong, P. N. (1979). A manual for the Grief Experience Inventory. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.Google Scholar
  149. Schackleton, C. H. (1984). The pathology of grief: A review. Advanced Behavior Research and Therapy, 6, 153–205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Schaie, W, & Parham, I. (1976). Stability of adult personality traits: Fact or fable. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 34, 146–158.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. Schanfield, S. (1983). Predicting bereavement outcome: Marital factors. Family Systems Mediane, 1, 40–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Schoenberg, B., Carr, A. C., Peretz, D., & Kutscher, A. H. (Eds.). (1970). Loss and grief: Psychological management in medical practice. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  153. Sheldon, A. R., Cochrane, J., Vachon, M. L. S., Lyall, W., Rogers, J., & Freeman, S. (1981). A psychosocial analysis of risk of psychological impairment following bereavement. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 169, 253–255.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. Siegler, I. C., George, L. K., & Okun, M. (1979). Cross-sequential analysis of adult personality. Developmental Psychology, 15, 350–351.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Silverman, D., & Cooperband, A. (1975). On widowhood: Mutual help and early widowhood. Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 8, 9–27.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. Silverman, P. R. (1980). Mutual help groups: Organization and development. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  157. Silverman, P. R. (1981). Helping women cope with grief. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  158. Silverman, P R. (1985). Widow to widow. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  159. Smith, K. R., & Zick, C. D. (1986). The incidence of poverty among the recently widowed: Mediating factors in the life course. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 48, 619–630.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Spanier, G. B., & Glick, P. C. (1980). Paths to remarriage. Journal of Divorce, 3, 283–298.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. Stern, K., & Williams, B. M. (1957). Grief reactions in later life. American Journal of Psychiatry, 108, 289–294.Google Scholar
  162. Stroebe, M. S., & Stroebe, W. (1983). Who suffers more? Sex differences in health risks of the widowed. Psychological Bulletin, 93, 279–301.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. Stroebe, W, & Stroebe, M. S. (1987). Bereavement and health. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Stroebe, M. S., Stroebe, W., Gergen, K. J., & Gergen, M. (1981). The broken heart: Reality or myth? Omega, 12, 87–105.Google Scholar
  165. Susseri, M. (1981). Widowhood: A situational life stress or a stressful life event. American Journal of Public Health, 71, 793–795.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Thomas, L. E., DiGiulio, R. C., & Sheehan, N. W. (1988). Identity loss and psychological crisis in widowhood: A réévaluation. International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 26(3), 225–239.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. Thompson, L. W., Breckenridge, J., Gallagher, D., & Peterson, J. (1984). Effects of bereavement on self-perceptions of physical health in elderly widows and widowers. Journal of Gerontology, 39, 309–314.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. U.S. Bureau of the Census. (1984). Current population report: Demographic and socioeconomic aspects of aging in the United States. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  169. Vachon, M. L. S. (1976). Grief and bereavement following the death of a spouse. Journal of the Canadian Psychiatric Association, 21, 35–44.Google Scholar
  170. Vachon, M. L. S., Sheldon, A. R., Lancée, W. J., Lyall, W. A. L., Rogers, J., and Freeman, S. J. J. (1982). Correlates of enduring distress patterns following bereavement: Social network, life situation, and personality. Psychological Medicine, 12, 783–788.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. Van Eerdewegh, M., & Clayton, P J. (1988). Bereavement. In R. Michaels (Ed.), Psychiatry (Chapter 62). Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott.Google Scholar
  172. Vinick, B. H. (1979). Remarriage in old age. In R. H. Jacobs & B. H. Vinick (Eds.). Re-engagement in later life. (pp. 141–243). Stamford, CT: Greylock.Google Scholar
  173. Wahl, C. W. (1970). The differential diagnoses of normal and neurotic grief following bereavement. Psychosomatics, 11, 104–106.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. Walker, K. N., MacBride, A., & Vachon, M. L. S. (1977). Social support networks and the crisis of bereavement. Social Science and Medicine, 11, 35–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Wan, T., & Odell, B. (1983). Major role losses and social participation of older males. Research on Aging, 5, 173–196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. Warlick, J. L. (1985). Why is poverty after 65 a woman’s problem? Journal of Gerontology, 40, 751–757.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. Weiss, R. S. (1984). Reactions to particular types of bereavement. In M. Osterweis, I. Solomon, & M. Owen (Eds.), Bereavement reactions: Consequences and care. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.Google Scholar
  178. Weissman, M. M., & Klerman, G. L. (1977). Sex differences and the epidemiology of depression. Archives of General Psychiatry, 34, 98–111.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. West, G. E., & Simons, R. L. (1983). Sex differences in stress, coping resources, and illness among the elderly. Research on Aging, 5, 235–268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. Windholz, J. J., Marmar, C. R., & Horowitz, M. J. (1985). A review of the research on conjugal bereavement: Impact on health and efficacy of intervention. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 26, 433–447.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. Wister, A. V., & Strain, L. (1986). Social support and well-being: A comparison of older widows and widowers. Canadian Journal on Aging, 5, 205–220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Wortman, C. B., & Silver, R. C. (1987). Coping with irrevocable loss. In G. R. VandenBos and B. X. Bryant (Eds.), Cataclysms, crises and catastrophes: Psychology in action (pp. 198–235). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  183. Wortman, C. B., & Silver, R. C. (1989). The myths of coping with loss. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 57, 349–357.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. Yochelson, L. (1969). The emotional problems of men in the mature years and beyond. Journal of American Geriatrics Society, 17(9), 855–860.Google Scholar
  185. Young, M., Benjamin, B., & Wallace, C. (1963). The mortality of widowers. Lancet, I, 454–456.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. Zick, C. D., & Smith, K. R. (1986). Immediate and delayed effects of widowhood on poverty: Patterns from the 1970’s. The Gerontologist, 26, 669–675.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. Zisook, S., & DeVaul, R. A. (1984). Measuring acute grief. Psychiatric Medicine, 2, 169–176.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. Zisook, S., & DeVaul, R. A. (1985). Unresolved grief. American Journal of Psychoanalysis, 45, 370–379.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. Zisook, S., & Shuchter, S. R. (1985). Time course of spousal bereavement. General Hospital Psychiatry, 7, 95–100.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. Zisook, S., & Shuchter, S. R. (1986). First four years of widowhood. Psychiatric Annals, 16, 288.Google Scholar
  191. Zisook, S., Shuchter, S. R., & Lyons, L. E. (1987). Predictors of psychological reactions during the early stages of widowhood. Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 10(3), 355–369.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • Richard K. Morycz
    • 1
  1. 1.Western Psychiatric Institute and ClinicPittsburghUSA

Personalised recommendations