Reproductive Tract Infections in India: The Need for Comprehensive Reproductive Health Policy and Programs

  • Usha K. Luthra
  • Suman Mehta
  • N. C. Bhargava
  • Prema Ramachandran
  • N. S. Murthy
  • A. Sehgal
  • B. N. Saxena
Part of the Reproductive Biology book series (RBIO)

Abstract

Worldwide, the subject of human reproduction is shifting from a mainly “demographic issue” to a broader women’s health and development issue that is viewed as a key determinant of both individual well-being and societal prosperity. A general consensus now exists that reproductive health not only should include the ability to regulate fertility, but must also ensure optimal conditions for safely fulfilling the biological role of reproduction, namely, bearing and raising healthy children. Sound reproductive health policy and programs also must help both women and men to handle their sexuality with responsibility and dignity. These programs would enable women and men to cope with problems such as reproductive ill health—by preventing and treating sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and other reproductive tract infections (RTIs)—as well as providing infertility and safe abortion services. Though many diseases place a heavy burden of morbidity and mortality on both men and women in developing countries, women are more often seriously affected because of synergistic effects of infection, malnutrition, and reproduction.

Keywords

Human Immunodeficiency Virus Cervical Cancer Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection Human Papilloma Virus Bacterial Vaginosis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Bali PA. Study of clinico-epidemiological investigations of vaginal discharge in rural women, 1991. Unpublished data.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bang RA, Bang AT, Baitule M, Choudhary Y, Sarmukaddam S, Tale O. High prevalence of gynaecological diseases in rural Indian women. Lancet 1989; 1: 85–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bhalla P. A clinical, microbiological and cytological study of nonspecific vaginitis. Progress report of ongoing ICMR research project, 1990. Unpublished data.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bhalla P, Rewari N, Chadha P. Gardnerella vaginalis in CuT 200 users. Indian J Med Res 1989; 89: 80–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bhargava NC. Sexually transmitted diseases in India. Presented at STD Media Orientation Workshop, Jaipur, India, 1988.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bhaskaran CS. Prevalence of genital chlamydial infection in symptomatic and asymptomatic women. Progress report of ongoing ICMR research project, 1990. Unpublished data.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bhatt R, Gogate A, Deodhar L. Mycoplasma infection in genital tract with special reference to immunofluorescence. J Postgrad Med 1989; 35: 40–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bhujwala RA. Role of Chlamydia trachomatis in pelvic inflammatory disease: detection of antigen and antibody by enzyme immunoassay. Progress report of ongoing ICMR research project, 1990. Unpublished data.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bhujwala RA, Department of Microbiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi. Personal communications, 1990.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bhujwala RA, Bhargava NC, Biswas T, Narain S, Pandhi RK. Antimicrobial sensitivity of N. gonorrhoeae to spectinomycin and rosoxacin. Indian J Med Res 1987; 86: 702–6.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bhujwala RA, Buckshee K, Shriniwas. Gardnerella vaginitis and associated aerobic bacterials in nonspecific vaginitis. Indian J Med Res 1985; 81: 251–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Bhujwala RA, Mishra B, Bhargava NC et al. Nongonococcal urethritis in men and its response to therapy. Indian J Med Res 1984; 79: 728.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Bhujwala RA, Pandhi RK, Bhargava NC et al. N. gonorrhoeae, its sensitivity to pencillin and tetracycline over a decade. Indian J Med Microbiol 1983; 1: 43–8.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Health Information India. Central Bureau of Health Intelligence, Director General of Health Services, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India, New Delhi, 1988.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Chakraborty S, Munni M. Serological survey for syphilis amongst antenatal cases in selected hospitals of Delhi. Indian J Public Health 1989; 33: 33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Chowdhury A. A bacteriological study of Gardnerella vaginitis isolated from patients, 1985. Unpublished data.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Das BC, Sehgal A, Murthy MS et al. Human papilloma virus and cervical cancer in Indian women. Lancet 1989; 2: 1271.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Deodhar LP. Study of Ureaplasma urealyticum from male genital tract infections, and detection of specific antibodies to U. urealyticum serotypes by ELISA. Progress report of ongoing ICMR research project, 1990. Unpublished data.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Department of Women and Child Development, Ministry of Human Resource Development. National perspective plan for women, New Delhi, 1988.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Dhall K, Sarkar A, Sokhey C, Dhall GI, Ganguly NK. Incidence of gonococcal infection and its clinicopathological correlation in patients attending gynaecological outpatient department. J Obstet Gynecol India 1990; 40: 410–3.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Family Welfare Programme in India. Ministry of Health and Family Welfare Year Book, New Dehli: Government of India, 1987–88.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Ghosh S. A strategy for basic minimal health care. Bull Nutr Found India 1990; 11: 1.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Gopalkrishnan K, Hinduja IM, Anand Kumar TC. Semen characteristics of asymptomatic males affected by Trichomonas vaginalis. J Invitro Fertil Embryol Trans 1990; 7: 165–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Gupta MM, Sharma BK, Singh V, Luthra UK. Immunocytological demonstration of HSV-II antigen on exofoliated cells from precancerous and cancerous lesions of the uterine cervix. Diagn Cytopathol 1988; 4: 48–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Indian Council of Medical Research. HIV infection-ongoing studies and future research plans. ICMR Bull 1988; 18: 109–19.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Indian Council of Medical Research. Illegal abortion in rural India. Report of a collaborative study, New Delhi, 1989.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Indian Council of Medical Research. Evaluation of quality of family welfare services at PHC level. Report of a collaborative study, New Delhi, 1992 (in press).Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Institute of Cytology and Preventive Oncology, Indian Council of Medical Research. Uterine cervical dysplasia study. Part II. Progress report, New Delhi, 1990.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Institute of Cytology and Preventive Oncology, Indian Council of Medical Research. Community control of cervical cancer. A feasibility study. Progress report, 1990. Unpublished data.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Jacob M, Rao PS, Sridharan G, John TJ. Epidemiology and clinical profile of genital herpes. Indian J Med Res 1989; 89: 4–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Luthra UK, Bhatnagar P, Das DK et al. Condylomatous lesion (HPV infection) of uterine cervix. Ann Biol Clin 1989; 47: 283–6.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Luthra UK, Roy ML, Sehgal A. Clinical downstaging of uterine cervix by paramedical personnel. Lancet 1988; 1: 1401.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Luthra UK, Mitra AB, Prabhakar AK, Bhatnagar P, Agarwal SS. Copper containing intrauterine devices and cervical carcinogenesis-48 months follow up. Indian J Med Res 1980; 72: 659–64.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Luthra UK, Sehgal A. Control of cervical cancer. Proceedings of 15th International Cancer Congress, Hamburg, August 16–22, 1990. J Cancer Res Clinic Oncol, 1990; 116.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Mishra MK, Sinha TK. Cytologic screening for the detection of cancer in the uterine cervix. A survey in Patna (India). Cancer Lett 1990; 52: 21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Mishra JS, Engineer AD, Tandon P. Cytopathological changes in human cervix and endometrium following prolonged retention of copper-bearing intrauterine contraceptive devices. Diagn Cytopathol 1989; 5: 237–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Mishra JS, Tandon P, Engineer AD. Results of cytological monitoring of cervical smears in gynaecology outpatients and contraceptive users, 1990. Unpublished data.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Murthy MS, Sehgal A, Satyanarayana L et al. Risk factors related to biological behaviour of precancerous lesions of the uterine cervix. Br J Cancer 1990; 61: 732–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    National Cancer Registry Programme, Indian Council of Medical Research. Annual report, New Delhi, 1987.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Pandit DV. Gardnerella vaginalis in the etiology of bacterial vaginosis or nonspecific vaginosis. Progress report of ongoing ICMR research project. Unpublished data.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Pandit DV, Barve SM, Deodhar LP. Biotypes of Gardnerella vaginalis isolated from non-specific vaginitis patients in Bombay. Indian J Med Res 1989; 89: 435–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Sehgal VM, Jain MK. Pattern of epidemics of donovanosis in the “nonendemic” region. Int J Dermatol 1989; 27: 396–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Sehgal VM, Koranne RV, Srivastava SB, Gupta MM, Luthra UK. Clinicopathology and immunohistochemistry of genital warts. Int J Dermatol 1988; 27: 690–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Sharma M, Nayak N, Malhotra S, Kumar B, Hemal A. Chlamydiazyme test for rapid detection of Chlamydia trachomatis. Indian J Med Res 1989; 89: 4–11.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Sharma N, Kumar B, Agarwal KC, Sharma SK, Surinder Kaur. Penicillinase producing strains of N. gonorrhoeae from Chandigarh. Indian J Med Res 1984; 80: 512–5.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Thirumoorthy T. The epidemiology of sexually transmitted diseases in Southeast Asia and the Western Pacific. Semin Dermatol 1990; 90: 102–4.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Urmil RC, Dutta PK, Basappa K, Ganguly SS. A study of morbidity patterns among prostitutes attending a municipal clinic in Pune. J Indian Med Assoc 1989; 87: 29–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • Usha K. Luthra
    • 2
    • 3
  • Suman Mehta
    • 2
  • N. C. Bhargava
    • 1
  • Prema Ramachandran
    • 2
  • N. S. Murthy
    • 3
  • A. Sehgal
    • 3
  • B. N. Saxena
    • 2
  1. 1.Regional STD CentreSafdarjung HospitalNew DelhiIndia
  2. 2.Indian Council of Medical ResearchAnsari NagarNew DelhiIndia
  3. 3.Institute of Cytology and Preventive OncologyMaulana Azad Medical CollegeNew DelhiIndia

Personalised recommendations