Reproductive Tract Infections in Nigeria: Challenges for a Fragile Health Infrastructure

  • Adeyemi O. Adekunle
  • Oladapo A. Ladipo
Part of the Reproductive Biology book series (RBIO)

Abstract

Reproductive tract infections (RTIs) are frequent and troublesome disorders during the reproductive life of women. In many developed countries, accurate annual data on RTIs are available; in Nigeria, however, most information on RTIs emanate from hospital-based studies that often are not representative of the true incidence of RTIs at the community level.

Keywords

Human Papilloma Virus Maternal Death Neisseria Gonorrhoeae Vaginal Discharge Genital Infection 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Osoba AO. Epidemiology of urethritis in Ibadan. Br J Vener Dis 1972; 48: 116–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Wilcox RR. Venereal disease in British West Africa. Br J Vener Dis 1946; 22: 63–68.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    World Health Organization Expert Committee on Gonococcal Infection. WHO study on world trends of early syphilis and gonorrhea during 1950–1960, WHO Technical Report 1963 (WHO publication no. 262, Geneva).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Romanowski V. A venereal disease survey in Sokoto town. W Afr J Med 1952; 1: 166–70.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Osoba AO, Onifade A. Venereal disease among pregnant women in Ibadan, Nigeria. W Afr J Med 1973; 1: 39–41.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Rotimi VO, Somorin AO. Sexually transmitted diseases in clinic patients in Lagos. Br J Vener Dis 1980; 56: 54–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bello CSS. Population screening for gonorrhoea in northern Nigeria. W Afr J Med 1983; 2: 49–52.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bello CSS, Elegbe OY, Dada JD. Sexually transmitted diseases in northern Nigeria. Br J Vener Dis 1983; 59: 202–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Awojobi OA, Nkposong EO, Lawani J. Aetiologic factors of male infertility in Ibadan, Nigeria. Afr J Med Sci 1972; 12: 91–4.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Osoba AO, Alausa KO. Gonococcal urethral stricture and watering-can perineum. Br J Vener Dis 1976; 52: 387–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Onifade A, Osoba AO. Venereal diseases among women complaining of infertility. W Afr J Med 1975; 23: 284–6.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Alausa KO, Sogbetun AO, Montifiore D. Effect of drying of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in relation to non-venereal infection in children. Nig J Paediatr 1977; 4: 14–8.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Sogbetun AO, Alausa KO, Osoba AO. Sexually transmitted diseases in Ibadan, Nigeria. Br J Vener Dis 1977; 53: 155–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Bello CS. Penicillinase producing Neisseria gonorrhoeae: report of first isolates from northern Nigeria. W Afr J Med 1982; 1: 39–41.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Joshi RM, Lawande RV. Sensitivity pattern and beta-lactamase screening of Neisseria gonorrhoeae strains isolated in Zaria, northern Nigeria. Trop Geogr Med 1985; 37: 74–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Odugbemi T. Sensitivity pattern of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in Nigeria and the significance of PPNG. Presented at the National Seminar on STD, Kano, Nigeria, September 19–22, 1984.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Osoba AO, Ogunbanjo BO. Penicillinase producing Neisseria gonorrhoeae in Nigeria. E Afr J 1983; 60: 694–8.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Osoba AO, Montifiore DG, Sogbetun AO et al. Sensitivity pattern of Neisseria gonorrhoeae to penicillin and screening for beta-lactamase production in Ibadan, Nigeria. Br J Vener Dis 1977; 53: 304–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Ogunbanjo BO. Sexually transmitted diseases in Nigeria. W Afr J Med 1989; 8: 42–9.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Darogar S, Forsey T, Osoba AO, Dines RJ, Adelusi B, Crocker GO. Chlamydia genital infection in Ibadan, Nigeria: sero-epidemiological survey. Br J Vener Dis 1982; 58: 366–9.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Osoba AO, Onifade A, Alausa KO. Genital tract infection and reproductive failure in developing countries. Nig J Med 1975; 5: 401–6.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Abioye-Kuteyi EA, Osoba AO. Trichomoniasis in Nigeria: epidemiology and control. Unpublished data, 1977.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Aimakhu VE. Trichomonas vaginalis treated with a single dose of Trinidazole: full report. Int J Gynecol Obstet 1974; 12: 84–7.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Ogunbanjo BO, Osoba AO. Trichomonal vaginitis in Nigerian women. Trop Geogr Med 1984; 36: 67–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Acholonu WAD. Trichomoniasis in Imo State, Nigeria: a first report. Afr J STD 1984; 1: 27–8.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Konje JC, Otolorin EO, Ogunniyi JO, Obisesan KA, Ladipo OA. The prevalence of Gardnerella vaginalis, Trichomonas vaginalis and Candida albicans in the cytology clinic at Ibadan, Nigeria. Afr J Med Sci 1991; 20: 29–34.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Adelusi B, Osunkoya BO, Fabiyi A. Antibodies to herpes type 2 virus in carcinoma of the cervix in Ibadan, Nigeria. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1975; 123: 758–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Adelusi B, Osunkoya BO, Fabiyi A. Sero epidemiology of herpes type 2 virus and carcinoma of the cervix in Ibadan. Afr J Med Sci 1977; 7: 394–6.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Abudu 00, Odugbemi TO. Gardnerella vaginalis vaginitis in pregnancy. W Afr J Med 1985; 4: 5–8.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Rotowa NA. Gardnerella vaginalis vaginitis in Ibadan. Dissertation, Nigeria Medical College, 1982.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Rampen F. Venereal syphilis in tropical Africa. Br J Vener Dis 1978; 54: 356–64.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Osoba AO. Serological tests for syphilis among hospital patients in Ibadan. In: Proceedings of first medical research seminar, Lagos: West African Council for Medical Research, 1972.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Osoba AO. The control of gonococcal and other sexually transmitted diseases in developing countries with particular reference to Nigeria. W J Med Sci 1979; 2: 127–33.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Adeoba A. Interpretation of positive serological tests for syphilis in pregnancy. Br J Vener Dis 1967; 43: 249–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Lawson JB. Lymphogranuloma venereum in Nigerian women. W Afr J Med 1963; 12: 89–94.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Lomhott G, Nsibarrbi J. Venereal diseases. Uganda Med J 1972; 1: 109–13.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Ellis M. Benign tubular structive of the rectum in the African. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hig 1973; 30: 515–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Onile BA, Odugbemi TO. Unpublished data.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Ladipo OA. Preventing and managing complications of induced abortion in third world countries. Int J Gynecol Obstet 1973 (Suppl); 3: 21–8.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Akinla O. Abortion, maternity and other problems in Nigeria. Nig J Med 1971; 7: 465–7.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Botu M. Septic abortion and septic shock. S Afr Med J 1975; 47: 432–8.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Santamariva BG, Smith SA. Septic abortion and septic shock. Clin Obstet Gynecol 1970; 13: 291–304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Ojo AO. Septic abortion in Ibadan: a ten year review of cases. W Afr Med J 1978: 51–3.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Ojo AO, Savage VY. A ten-year review of maternal mortality rates in the University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1974; 118: 517–22.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Unuigbe JA, Oronsanye AU, Orhue AAE. Preventable factors in abortion related maternal mortality in Africa: focus on abortion deaths in Benin City, Nigeria. Trop J Obstet Gynecol 1988; 1 (Special Edition): 36–9.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Omu AE, Oronsanye AU, Faal MKS, Asuquo EJ. Adolescent induced abortion in Benin City, Nigeria. Int J Obstet Gynecol 1981; 19: 495–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Oronsanye AU, Ogbeide O, Unuigbe E. Pregnancy among school girls in Nigeria. Int J Obstet Gynecol 1982; 20: 409–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Konje JC. Septic abortion in Ibadan. Dissertation, Nigerian Postgraduate Medical College, 1986.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Adewole IF. University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria. Personal communication, 1991.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Adadevoh BK, Akinla O, Post-abortion and post-partum tetanus. J Obstet Gynecol Br Commonwealth 1970; 77: 1019–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Briggs ND. Maternal death in the booked and unbooked patients: the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital experience. Trop J Obstet Gynecol 1988; 1 (Special Edition): 26–9.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Megafu U. Maternal mortality from emergency caesarean section in booked hospital patients at the University of Nigerian Teaching Hospital, Enugu, Nigeria. Trop J Obstet Gynecol 1988; 1 (Special Edition): 29–31.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Okonofua FE, Makinde ON, Ayangbacle SO. Yearly trends in caesarean section and caesarean maternity at Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Trop J Obstet Gynecol 1988; 1 (Special Edition): 31–5.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Adeleye JA. Primary elective cesarean section in Ibadan. Int Surg 1977; 62: 97–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Oronsanye AU, Diejomah FME, Omene JA. A review of caesarean section at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria (1973–1976). In: Ojo OA, Ainakhu VE, Akula O, Emmanuel LA, Chukudebelu WO, Brodena Ekstrands-Tryckeri AB, eds. Obstetrics and gynaecology in developing countries: proceedings of an international conference by Society for Gynecology and Obstetrics of Nigeria. Ibadan, Nigeria, 1977. Lund, 1980, 1977: 402–9.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Ibeziako PA. Effect of post-caesarean section sepsis in subsequent fertility. W Afr J Med 1986; 5: 35–9.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Grimes BA. IUCDs and pelvic infection. Am J Gynecol Health 1989; 111: 23–6.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Senakaye P, Kramer DG. Contraception and the etiology of pelvic inflammatory disease: new perspectives. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1980; 138: 852–60.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Ladipo OA, Farr G, Otolorin EO et al. Prevention of IUCD related pelvic infection: the efficacy of prophylactic doxycycline at IUCD insertion. Adv Contracept 1991; 7: 43–54.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Okehilanu MG. Pelvic abscess at University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu. Long commentary for fellowship examination, West African College of Surgeons, 1989.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Chukudebelu WO. Acute pelvic infection. W Afr J Med 1975; 23: 284–6.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Nylander PPS, Ladipo OA. Infertility status in rural Nigeria. World Health Organization Community Survey, 1979. Unpublished.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Adetoro 00, Ebonmoyi EW. The prevalence of infertility in a rural Nigerian community. Afr J Med Sci 1991.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Akingba JB, Eneli AC. A review of 100 cases of ruptured ectopic pregnancies in Lagos, Nigeria. Nig J Med 1975; 5: 241–6.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Odebiyi AI. Socio-cultural factors affecting health care delivery in Nigeria. J Trop Med Hyg 1977; 80: 249–54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Hosken FP. The Hosken report: genital and sexual mutilation of females. Women in Nigeria News 1979 (second enlarged edition).Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Harrison KA. The influence of maternal age and child-bearing with special reference to primigravidae age 15 years and under. Br J Obstet Gynecol 1985; 92 (Supplement 5): 23–31.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Ekabem II, Ebigbola JA, Ugyn AA. The role of traditional birth attendants in southeastern Nigeria, Ile-Ife: Ile-Ife Institute of Population and Manpower Studies, 1975.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Maclean U. Traditional healers and their female clients: an aspect of Nigerian sickness behaviour. J Health Soc Behav 1969; 10: 172–86.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Stanching H, Kisekka MN. Sexual behaviour in Sub-Saharan Africa: a review of annotated bibliography. Project report submitted to British Overseas Development Administration, 1989.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Kisekka MN, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria. Personal communication, 1990.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Obot I. Sexual abuse of children in Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria. In: Child labour in Africa, Chuka Printing Company, 1986.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Ware H. Motivation for the use of birth control: evidence from West Africa. Demography 1976; 13: 479–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Feyisitan B, Pebley AR. Pre-marital sexuality in urban Nigeria. Stud Fam Plann 1989; 20: 343–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Nichols D, Ladipo OA, Patmen JM, Otolorin EO. Sexual behavior, contraceptive pill practice and reproductive health among Nigerian adolescents. Stud Fam Plann 1986; 17: 100–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Koso TO. The circumcision of women: a strategy of eradication, London: Zed Books, 1987.Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Trevitt J. Attitudes and customs in childbirth among Hausa women, Zaria City. Savannah 1973; 2: 223.Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Kisekka MN. Aspects of childhood and adolescent health needs in Nigeria. Presented at the UNICEF seminar on Maternal and Child Health in Nigeria, Ile-Ife, February 26–28, 1990.Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Cates W, Farley TMM, Rowe PJ. Worldwide patterns of infertility: is Africa different? Lancet 1985; 2: 596–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Federal Ministry of Health, Lagos. Unpublished data.Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Rotimi VO, Somorin AO, Itafiz S. Suggestion for the facilities required for the management of sexually transmitted diseases in developing countries. Nig J Med 1982; 12: 61–9.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • Adeyemi O. Adekunle
    • 1
  • Oladapo A. Ladipo
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology College of MedicineUniversity of Ibadan University College HospitalIbadanNigeria

Personalised recommendations