Physiological and Behavioral Assessment

  • Rolf G. Jacob
  • Carolyn Brodbeck
  • Duncan B. Clark
Part of the Critical Issues in Psychiatry book series (CIPS)


When addressing a research question in psychiatry and in the behavioral sciences, it is important to consider physiological and behavioral assessments in addition to self-report measures for two reasons. First, employing these methods allows the researcher to address questions that are only accessible in this manner; “physiological” questions often require physiological methods. Second, physiological measures and behavioral observations bypass certain problems involved in self-reporting, such as selective reporting, biases, forgetting, and the wish to please the experimenter.


Panic Disorder Sexual Arousal Skin Conductance Panic Attack Behavioral Assessment 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Abel, G., Blanchard, E. B., Barlow, D. H., & Mavissakalian, M. (1975). Identifying specific erotic cues in sexual deviations by audiotaped descriptions. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 8, 247–260.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Abramczyk, R. R., Jordan, D. E., & Hegel, M. (1983). “Reverse” Stroop effect in the performance of schizophrenics. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 56, 99–106.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Agras, S., Leitenberg, H., & Barlow, D. H. (1968). Social reinforcement in the modification of agoraphobia. Archives of General Psychiatry, 19, 423–427.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Agras, W. S., Jacob, R. G., & Ledebeck, M. (1980). The California drought: A quasi-experimental study of social policy. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 13, 561–570.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Allen, M. T., & Crowell, M. D. (1989). Patterns of autonomic response during laboratory Stressors. Psychophysiology, 26, 603–614.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. American Psychiatric Association. (1987). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (3rd ed., rev.). Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  7. Anastasiades, P., & Johnston, D. W. (1990). A simple activity measure for use with ambulatory subjects. Psychophysiology, 27, 87–93.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Anderson, K. J. (1990). Arousal and the inverted U relationship: A critique of Neiss’s “reconceptualizing arousal.” Psychological Bulletin, 107, 96–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Andreassi, J. L. (1989). Psychophysiology: Human behavior and physiological response. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  10. Arkowitz, H. (1981). Assessment of social skills. In A. S. Bellack & M. Hersen (Eds.), Behavioral assessment: A practical handbook (2nd ed., pp. 296–327). New York: Pergamon Press.Google Scholar
  11. Asperinsky, E., Lynch, J. A., Mack, M. E., Tzankoff, S. P., & Hum, E. (1985). Comparison of eye motion in wakefulness and REM sleep. Psychophysiology, 22, 1–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Astrand, P. O., & Rodahl, L. (1986). Textbook of work physiology (3rd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  13. Atkins, M. S., Pelham, W. E., & Licht, M. H. (1988). The development and validation of objective classroom measures for conduct and attention deficit disorders. In R. J. Prinz, Advances in behavioral assessment of children and families, Vol. 4 (pp. 3–31). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.Google Scholar
  14. Ax, A. F. (1953). The physiological differentiation between fear and anger in humans. Psychosomatic Medicine, 15, 433–442.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Bakeman, R., & Gottman, J. M. (1986). Observing interaction: An introduction to sequential analysis. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  16. Barlow, D. H. (1988). Anxiety and its disorders. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  17. Barry, R. J. (1990). Scoring criteria for response latency and habituation in electrodermal research: A study in the context of the orienting response. Psychophysiology, 27, 94–100.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Barthell, C. N., & Holmes, D. S. (1968). High school yearbooks: A non-reactive measure of social isolation in graduates who later become schizophrenic. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 73, 313–316.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Basmajian, J. V (1978). Muscles alive—Their functions revealed by electromyography. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins.Google Scholar
  20. Becker, R. E., & Heimberg, R. G. (1988). Assessment of social skills. In A. S. Bellack & M. Hersen (Eds.). Behavioral assessment: A practical handbook (3rd ed., pp. 365–395). New York: Pergamon Press.Google Scholar
  21. Beidel, D. C., Turner, S. M., Jacob, R. G., & Cooley, M. R. (1989). Assessment of social phobia: Reliability of an impromptu speech task. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 3, 149–158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Bellack, A. S., Morrison, R. L., Mueser, K. T., & Wade, J. (1989). Social competence in schizoaffective disorder, bipolar disorder, and negative and non-negative schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research, 2, 391–401.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Berger, R. D., Akselrod, S., Gordon, D., & Cohen, R. J. (1986). An efficient algorithm for spectral analysis of heart rate variability. IEEE Transactions of Biomedical Engineering, BME-33, 901-904.Google Scholar
  24. Berlin, C. I., & McNeil, M. R. (1976). Dichotic listening. In Contemporary issues in experimental phonetics (pp. 327–357). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  25. Blumenthal, T. D., & Levey, B. J. (1989). Prepulse rise time and startle reflex modification: Different effects for discrete and continuous prepulses. Psychophysiology, 26(2), 158–165.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Bouhuys, A. L., Schutte, H. K., Beersma, D. G. M., and Nieboer, G. L. (1990). Relationship between depressed mood and vocal parameters before, during and after sleep deprivation: A circadian rhythm study. Journal of Affective Disorders, 19, 249–258.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Boukadoum, A. M., & Kontas, P. Y. (1986). EOG-based recording and automated detection of sleep rapid eye movements: A critical review. Psychophysiology, 22, 598–611.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Bradley, M. M., Cuthbert, B. N., & Lang, P. J. (1990). Startle reflex modification: Emotion or attention? Psychophysiology, 27, 513–522.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Bradshaw, J. L., & Burden, V (1986). Dichotic and dichaptic techniques. Neuropsychologia, 24, 79–90.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Bruder, G.E. (1983). Cerebral laterality and psychopathology: A review of dichotic listening studies. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 9, 134–151.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Buss, D. M., Block, J. H., & Block, J. (1980). Preschool activity level: Personality correlates and developmental implications. Child Development, 51, 401–408.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Cacioppo, J. T., & Tassinary, L. G. (1990). Inferring psychological significance from physiological signals. American Psychologist, 45, 16–28.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Carrol, D., Turner, R. R., & Hellawell, J. C. (1986). Heart rate and oxygen consumption during active psychological challenge: The effects of level of difficulty. Psychophysiology, 23, 174–181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Charney, D. S., & Heninger, G. R. (1986). Abnormal regulation of noradrenergic function in panic disorders. Archives of General Psychiatry, 43, 1042–1054.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Chesney, M. A., Ekman, P., Friesen, W. V., Black, G. W., & Hecker, M. H. L. (1990). Type A behavior pattern: Facial behavior and speech components. Psychosomatic Medicine, 53, 307–319.Google Scholar
  36. Chirico, A. M., & Stunkard, A. J. (1960). Physical activity and human obesity. New England Journal of Medicine, 263, 935–940.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Clark, D. B., Taylor, C. B., Hayward, C., King, R., Margraf, J., Ehlers, A., Roth, W. T., & Agras, W. S. (1990). Motor activity and tonic heart rate in panic disorder. Psychiatry Research, 32, 45–53.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Clark, D. B., Taylor, C. B., & Hayward, C. (1990). Naturalistic assessment of panic episodes. In J. Ballenger (Ed.), The clinical aspects of panic disorder (pp. 83–97). New York: Alan R. Liss.Google Scholar
  39. Clark, D. C., & Agras, W. S. (1991). The assessment and treatment of performance anxiety in musicians. American Journal of Psychiatry, 148, 598–605.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Clementz, B. A., & Sweeney, J. A. (1990). Is eye movement dysfunction a biological marker for schizophrenia?—A methodological review. Psychological Bulletin, 108, 77–92.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Cohen, A. S., Barlow, D. H., & Blanchard, E. B. (1985). Psychophysiology of relaxation-associated panic attacks. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 94, 96–101.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Coles, G. H., Donchin, E., & Porges, S. W. (1986). Psychophysiology: Systems, processes, and applications. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  43. Corby, J. C., Roth, W. T., Zarcone, W. P., Jr., & Kopell, B. S. (1977). Psychophysiological correlates of the practice of tantric yoga meditation. Archives of General Psychiatry, 35, 571–577.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Cramer, J. A., Mattson, R. H., Prevey, M. L., Scheier, R. D., & Ouellette, V L. (1989). How often is medication taken as prescribed? Journal of the American Medical Association, 261, 3273–3277.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Curran, J. P. (1984). A procedure for the assessment of social skills: The simulated social interaction test. In J. P. Curran & P. M. Monti (Eds.), Radical approaches to social skills training (pp. 16–47). London: Croon Helm.Google Scholar
  46. Curran, J. P., Farrell, A. D., & Grunberger, A. J. (1984). Social skills: A critique and a rapprochement. In P. Trower (Ed.), Radical approaches to social skills training (pp. 16–47). London: Croon Helm.Google Scholar
  47. Dalgleish, T., & Watts, F. N. (1990). Biases of attention and memory in disorders of anxiety and depression. Clinical Psychology Review, 10, 589–604.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Davidson, R. J., Ekman, P., Saron, C. D., Senulis, J. A., & Friesen, W. V (1990). Approach-withdrawal and cerebral asymmetry: Emotional expression and brain physiology: I. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 58(2), 330–341.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Dimberg, U. (1990). Facial electromyography and emotional reactions. Psychophysiology, 27, 481–494.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Donchin, E., Karis, D., Bashore, T. R., Coles, M. G. H., & Gratton, G. (1986). Cognitive psychophysiology and human information processing. In M. G. H. Coles, E. Donchin, & S. W. Porges (Eds.), Psychophysiology: Systems, processes, and applications (pp. 244–267). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  51. Dunbar, J., Dunning, E. J., & Dwyer, K. (1989). Compliance measurement with arthritis regimen. Arthritis Care and Research, 2(3), S8–S16.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Dunner, D. (1985). Anxiety and panic: Relationship to depression and cardiac disorders. Psychosomatics, 26, 18–22.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Dyer, F. N. (1973). The Stroop phenomenon and its use in the study of perceptual, cognitive, and response processes. Memory and Cognition, 1, 106–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Eisler, R. M., & Frederiksen, L. W. (1980). Perfecting social skills: A guide to interpersonal behavioral development. New York: Plenum Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Eisler, R. M., Hersen, M., Miller, P. M., & Blanchard, E. B. (1975). Situational determinants of assertive behaviors. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 43, 330–340.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Ekman, P., & Friesen, W. V. (1978). Facial Action Coding System: A technique for the measurement of facial movement. Palo Alto: Consulting Psychologists Press. (Quoted by Chesney, 1990).Google Scholar
  57. Ekman, P., Levenson, R. W., & Friesen, W. V (1983). Autonomic nervous system activity distinguishes among emotions. Science, 221, 1208–1210.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Ekman, P., Davidson, R. J., & Friesen, W. V. (1990). The Duchenne smile: Emotional expression and brain physiology: II. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 38(2), 343–353.Google Scholar
  59. Emmelkamp, P. M. G., & Felton, M. (1985). The process of exposure in vivo: Cognitive and physiological changes during treatment of acrophobia. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 23, 219–224.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Eriksen, L., Bjornstad, S., & Gotestam, K. (1986). Social skills training for alcoholism: One year treatment outcome for groups and individuals. Addictive Behaviors, 11, 309–329.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Falk, J. R., Halmi, K. A., & Tryon, W. W. (1985). Activity measures in anorexia nervosa. Archives of General Psychiatry, 42, 811–814.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Foster, G. E., Evans, D. F., & Hardcastle, J. D. (1978). Heart rates of surgeons during operations and other clinical activities and their modification by oxprenol. Lancet, No. 8078, 1323-1325.Google Scholar
  63. Fowles, D. C. (1982). Heart rate as an index of anxiety: Failure of a hypothesis. In J. T. Cacioppo & R. E. Petty (Eds.), Perspectives in cardiovascular psychophysiology. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  64. Fowles, D. C. (1986). The eccrine system and electrodermal activity. In G. H. Coles, E. Donchin, & S. W. Porges (Eds.), Psychophysiology: Systems, processes, and applications (pp. 51–87). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  65. Fowles, D. C., Christie, M. J., Edelberg, R., Grings, W. W., Lykken, D. T., & Venables, P. H. (1981). Committee report: Publication recommendations for electrodermal measurements. Psychophysiology, 18, 232–239.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Freedman, R. B., Ianni, P., Ettedgui, E., & Puthezhath, N. (1985). Ambulatory monitoring of panic disorder. Archives of General psychiatry, 42, 244–248.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Fridlund, A. J., & Cacioppo, J.T. (1986). Guidelines for human electromyographic research. Psychophysiology, 23, 567–589.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Fried, L. A., Kenardy, J. A., Ironson, G. H., & Taylor, C. B. (1989). Are there spontaneous panic attacks? Paper presented at the meeting of the American Psychological Association. New Orleans, LA.Google Scholar
  69. Furedy, J. J. (1986). Lie detection as psychophysiological differentiation: Some fine lines. In G. H. Coles, E. Donchin, & S. W. Porges (Eds.), Psychophysiology: Systems, processes, and applications (pp. 683–701). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  70. Gaffney, F. A., Fenton, B. J., Lane, L. D., & Lake, R. (1988). Hemodynamic, ventilatory, and biochemical responses of panic patients and normal controls with sodium lactate infusion and spontaneous panic attacks. Archives of General Psychiatry, 45, 53–60.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Geer, J. H., O’Donohue, W. T., & Schorman, R. H. (1986). Sexuality. In G. H. Coles, E. Donchin, & S. W. Porges (Eds.), Psychophysiology: Systems, processes, and applications (pp. 407–430). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  72. George, D. T., Nutt, D. J., Walker, W. V., Porges, S. W., Adinoff, B., & Linnoila, M. (1989). Lactate and hyperventilation substantially attenuate vagal tone in normal volunteers: A possible mechanism of panic provocation? Archives of General Psychiatry, 46, 153–156.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Golden, C. (1978). The Stroop Color and Word Test: A manual for clinical and experimental uses. Chicago: Stoelting.Google Scholar
  74. Gorman, J. M., Fyer, M. R., Goetz, R., Askanazi, J., Liebowitz, M. R., Fyer, A. J., Kinney, J., & Klein, D. F. (1988). Ventilatory physiology of patients with panic disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry, 45, 31–39.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Gotlib, I. H., & McCann, C. D. (1984). Construct accessibility and depression: An examination of cognitive and affective factors. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 47, 427–439.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Grady, C. L., Grimes, A. M., Patronas, N., Sunderland, T., Foster, N. L., & Rapoport, S. I. (1989). Divided attention, as measured by dichotic speech performance, in dementia of the Alzheimer type. Archives of Neurology, 46, 317–320.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Graves, R., & Bradley, R. (1987). Millisecond interval timer and auditory reaction time programs for the IBM PC. Behavior Research Methods and Instrumentation, 19, 30–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Hassett, J., & Danforth, D. (1982). An introduction to the cardiovascular system. In J. T. Cacioppo & R. E. Petty (Eds.). Perspectives in cardiovascular psychophysiology (pp. 4–18). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  79. Hibbert, G., & Pilsbury, D. (1988). Hyperventilation in panic attacks: Ambulant monitoring of transcutaneous carbon dioxide. British Journal of Psychiatry, 153, 76–80.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Hollin, C. R., & Trower, P (1986). Social skills training: Critique and future development. In C. R. Hollin & P. Trower (Eds.), Handbook of social skills training: clinical applications and new directions (pp. 237–257). Oxford: Pergamon Press.Google Scholar
  81. Holzman, P. S., Levy, D.L., & Proctor, L. R. (1976). Smooth pursuit eye movements, attention and schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry, 33, 1415–1420.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Hooley, J. M., & Teasdale, J. D. (1989). Predictors of relapse in unipolar depressives: expressed emotion, marital distress, and perceived criticism. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 98, 229–235.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. House, A. E., House, B. J., & Campbell, M. B. (1981). Measure of interobserver agreement: Calculation formulas and distribution effects. Journal of Behavioral Assessment, 3, 37–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Jacob, R. G. (1988). Panic disorder and the vestibular system. Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 11, 361–374.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Jacob, R. G., & Rapport, M. (1984). Panic disorder. In S. M. Turner (Ed.), Behavioral treatment of anxiety disorders (pp. 187–237). New York: Plenum Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Jacob, R. G., & Turner, S. M., (1984). Somatoform disorders. In S. M. Turner & M. Hersen (Eds.), Adult Psychopathology (pp. 304–328). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  87. Jacob, R. G., O’Leary, K. D., & Rosenblad, C. (1978). Formal and informal classroom settings: Effects on hyperactivity. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 6, 47–59.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Jacob, R. G., Beidel, D. C., & Shapiro, A. P. (1984). The relaxation word of the day: A simple technique to measure adherence to relaxation. Journal of Behavioral Assessment, 6, 159–165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Jacob, R. G., Moller, M. B., Turner, S. M., & Wall, I. C. (1985). Otoneurological examination of panic disorder and agoraphobia with panic attacks: A pilot study. American Journal of Psychiatry, 142, 715–720.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Jacob, R. G., Shapiro, A. P., Reeves, R. A., Johnsen, A. M., McDonald, R. H., & Coburn, P. C. (1986). Comparison of relaxation therapy for hypertension with placebo, diuretics or betablockers. Archives of Internal Medicine, 146, 2335–2350.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Jacob, R. G., Simons, A. D., Rohay, J., Manuck, S., & Waldstein, S. R. (1989). The circular mood scale: A new technique of measuring ambulatory mood. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 11, 697–716.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Jacob, R. G., Lilienfeld, S. O., Furman, J. M. R., & Turner, S. M. (1989). Space and motion phobia in panic disorder with vestibular dysfunction. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 3, 117–130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Jacob, R. G., & Lilienfeld, S. O. (1991). Panic disorder: Diagnosis, medical assessment, and psychological assessment. In J. R. Walker, G. R. Norton, & C. A. Ross (Eds.), Panic disorder and agoraphobia: A comprehensive guide for the practitioner (pp. 16–103). Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.Google Scholar
  94. Jacob, R. G., Chesney, M. A., Williams, D. M., Ding, Y., & Shapiro, A. P. (1991). Relaxation therapy for hypertension: Design effects and treatment effects. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 13, 5–17.Google Scholar
  95. Jacob, R. G., Shapiro, A. P., O’Hara, P., Portser, S., Kruger, A., Gatsonis, C., & Ding, Y (1992). Relaxation therapy for hypertension: Setting-specific effects. Psychosomatic Medicine, 54, 87–101.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Jennings, J. R. (1986). Bodily changes during attending. In G. H. Coles, E. Donchin, & S. W. Porges (Eds.), Psychophysiology: Systems, processes, and applications (pp. 268–289). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  97. Jennings, J.R., Tahmoush, A. J., & Redmond, D. P (1980). Non-reactive measurement of peripheral vascular activity. In I. Martin & P. H. Venables (Eds.), Techniques in Psychophysiology. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  98. Johnston, W. A., & Dark, V. J. (1986). Selective attention. Annual Review of Psychology, 37, 43–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Kass, M. A., Meltzer, D. W., & Gordon, M. (1984). A miniature monitor for eyedrop medication. Archives of Ophthalmology, 102, 1550–1554.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Kazdin, A. E. (1979). Unobtrusive measures in behavioral assessment. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 12, 713–724.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Keele, S. W. (1986). Motor control. In L. Boff & J. P. Kaufman (Eds.), Handbook of perception and human performance, Volume 2 (pp. 1–60). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  102. Kenardy, J. A., Evans, L., & Oei, T. (1988). The importance of cognitions in panic attacks. Behavior Therapy, 19, 471–483.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Kenardy, J. A., Taylor, C. B., & Fried, L. A. (1989). Circadian cosine model predicts anxiety in panic. Paper presented at the meeting of the American Psychiatric Association, San Francisco, CA.Google Scholar
  104. Kern, J. M. (1984). Relationship between obtrusive laboratory and unobtrusive naturalistic behavioral fear assessments: Treated and untreated subjects. Behavioral Assessment, 6, 45–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. King, R., Bayon, E. P., Clark, D. B., & Taylor, C. B. (1988). Tonic arousal and activity: Relationships to personality and personality disorder traits in panic patients. Psychiatry Research, 25, 65–72.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Kitsch, W. (1982). Memory and cognition. Malabar, FL: R. E. Krieger.Google Scholar
  107. Korff, J., & Geer, J. H. (1983). Relationship between subjective sexual arousal experience and genital responses. Psychophysiology, 20, 121–127.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Korner, A. F., Zeenah, C. H., Linden, J., Berkowitz, R. L., Kraemer, H. C., & Agras, W. S. (1985). The relation between neonatal and later activity and temperament. Child Development, 56, 38–42.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Kramer, H. C., Pruyn, J. P., Gibbons, R. D., Greenhouse, J. B., Grochoncinski, V. J., Vaternaux, C., & Kupfer, D. J. (1987). Methodology in psychiatric research. Archives in General Psychiatry, 44(12), 1100–1106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Kruse, W., & Weber, E. (1990). Dynamics of drug regimen compliance—its assessment by microprocessor-based monitoring. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 38, 561–565.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Kupfer, D. J., Weiss, B. L., Foster, G., Detre, T. P., Delgado, J., & McPartland, R. (1974). Psychomotor activity in affective states. Archives of General Psychiatry, 30, 765–768.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Kutcher, S. P., Blackwood, H.R., St. Clair, D., Gaskell, D. E., & Muir, W. J. (1987). Auditory P300 in borderline personality disorder and schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry, 44, 645–650.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Lane, D. J., Greenstadt, L., Shapiro, D., & Rubinstein, E. (1983). Pulse transit time and blood pressure: An intensive analysis. Psychophysiology, 20, 45–49.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Lang, P. J. (1968). Fear reduction and fear behavior: Problems in treating a construct. In J. M. Shlien (Ed.), Research in psychotherapy (Vol. 3). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  115. Lang, P. J., & Lazovik, A. D. (1963). Experimental desensitization of a phobia. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 66, 519–525.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Lang, P. J. Levin, D. N., Miller, G. A., & Kozak, M. J. (1983). Fear behavior, fear imagery, and the psychophysiology of emotion: The problem of affective response integration. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 92, 276–306.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Lang, P. J., Bradley, M. M., & Cuthbert, B. N. (1990). Emotion, attention, and the startle reflex. Psychological Review, 97(3), 377–395.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Larsen, P. B., Schneiderman, N., & DeCarlo-Pasin, R. (1986). Physiological bases of cardiovascular psychophysiology. In G. H. Coles, E. Donchin, & S. W. Porges (Eds.), Psychophysiology: Systems, processes, and applications (pp. 122–165). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  119. Leff, J. P., & Vaughn, C. (Eds.). (1985). Expressed emotion in families: Its significance of mental illness. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  120. Leroy, R. F., & Ebersole, J. S. (1983). An evaluation of ambulatory, cassette EEG monitoring. Neurology, 33, 1–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Levenson, R. W., & Gottman, J. M. (1983). Marital interaction: Physiological linkage and affective exchange. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 45(3), 587–597.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Levenson, R. W., Ekman, P., & Friesen, W. (1990). Voluntary facial action generates emotion-specific autonomic nervous system activity. Psychophysiology, 27, 363–384.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Ley, R. (1985). Agoraphobia, the panic attack and hyperventilation syndrome. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 23, 79–81.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Liberman, R. P., DeRisi, W. J., & Mueser, K. T. (1989). Social skills training for psychiatric patients. New York: Pergamon Press.Google Scholar
  125. Maarse, F. J., Mulder, L. J. M., Sjouw, W. P.B., & Akkerman, A. E. (1988). Computers in psychology: Methods, instrumentation, and psychodiagnostics. Amsterdam: Swets and Zeitlinger.Google Scholar
  126. Mahon, M. L., & Iacono, W. G. (1987). Another look at the relationship of electrodermal activity to electrode contact area. Psychophysiology, 24, 216–222.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Marchione, K. E., Michelson, L., Greenwald, M., & Dancu, C. (1987). Cognitive behavioral treatment of agoraphobia. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 25, 319–328.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Margraf, J., Ehlers, A., & Roth, W. T. (1986). Lactate infusions and panic attacks: A review and critique. Psychosomatic Medicine, 48, 23–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Marier, M., Jacob, R. G., Lehoczky, J. L., & Shapiro, A. P. (1988). The statistical analysis of treatment effects in 24-h ambulatory blood pressure recordings. Statistics in Medicine, 7, 697–716.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Martin, I., & Venables, P. H. (1980). Techniques in Psychophysiology. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  131. Mathews, A., & MacLeod, D. (1985). Selective processing of threat cues in anxiety states. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 23, 563–569.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Mathews, A., & MacLeod, C. (1986). Discrimination of threat cues without awareness in anxiety states. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 23, 563–569.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Mathews, A., May, J., Mogg, K., & Eysenck, M. (1990). Attentional bias in anxiety: Selective search or defective filtering? Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 99, 166–173.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Matson, J. L., & Ollendick, T. H. (1988). Enhancing children’s social skills: Assessment and training. New York: Pergamon Press.Google Scholar
  135. Mavissakalian, M., & Michelson, L. (1982). Patterns of psychophysiological change in the treatment of agoraphobia. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 20, 347–356.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Michelson, L. (1987). Cognitive-behavioral assessment of agoraphobia. In L. Michelson & L. M. Ascher (Eds.), Anxiety and Stress Disorders (pp. 213–279). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  137. Michelson, L., Mavissakalian, M., & Marchione, K. (1985). Cognitive and behavioral treatments of agoraphobia: Clinical, behavioral and psychophysiological outcomes. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 53, 913–925.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Michelson, L., Mavissakalian, M., Marchione, K., Ulrich, R. F., Marchione, N., & Testa, S. (1990). Psychophysiological outcome of cognitive, behavioral and psychophysiologically-based treatments of agoraphobia. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 28, 127–139.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Michie, P. T., Fox, A. M., Ward, P. B., Catts, S. V., & McConaghy, N. (1990). Event-related potential indices of selective attention and cortical lateralization in schizophrenia. Psychophysiology, 27, 209–227.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Miller, R. E. (1987). Method to study anhedonia in hospitalized psychiatric patients. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 96(1), 41–45.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Miran, M., & Miran, E. (1984). Cerebral asymmetries: Neuropsychological measurement and theoretical issues. Biological Psychology, 19, 295–304.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Mogg, K., Mathews, A., & Weinman, J. (1987). Memory bias in clinical anxiety. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 96, 94–98.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Morrison, R., & Bellack, A. S. (1981). The role of social perception in social skills. Behavior Therapy, 12, 69–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Morrison, R., & Bellack, A. S. (1987). Social functioning of schizophrenic patients: Clinical and research issue. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 13, 715–725.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. Morrison, R. L., Bellack, A. S., & Manuck, S. B. (1985). Role of social competence in borderline essential hypertension. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 53(2), 248–255.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Morrison, R. L., Van Hasselt, V B., & Bellack, A. S. (1987). Assessment of assertion and problem-solving skills in wife abusers and their spouses. Journal of Family Violence, 2, 227–238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Naatanen, R., & Picton, T. (1987). The N! wave of the human electric and magnetic response to sound: A review and analysis of the component structure. Psychophysiology, 24, 375–425.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. Neiss, R. (1988). Reconceptualizing arousal: Psychobiological states in motor performance. Psychological Bulletin, 103, 345–366.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Neiss, R. (1990). Ending arousal’s reign of error: A reply to Anderson. Psychological Bulletin, 107, 101–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Nesse, R. M., Cameron, O. G., Curtis, G. C., McCann, D. S., & Huber-Smith, M. J. (1984). Adrenergic function in patients with panic anxiety. Archives of General Psychiatry, 41, 771–776.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. Newton, J. E., Paige, S. R., Angel, C., & Reese, W. (1988). Heart rate and activity in response to natural stimuli in nervous and normal pointer dogs. Biological Psychiatry, 23, 829–833.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. Nietzel, M. T., Bernstein, D. A., & Russell, R. L. (1988). Assessment of anxiety and fear. In A. S. Bellack & M. Hersen (Eds.), Behavioral assessment: A practical handbook (3rd ed., pp. 280–312). New York: Pergamon Press.Google Scholar
  153. Obrist, P. A. (1982). Cardiac-behavioral interactions: A critical appraisal. In J. T. Cacioppo & R. E. Petty (Eds.), Perspectives in cardiovascular psychophysiology. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  154. Ogilvie, R. D., McDonagh, D. M., Stone, S. N., & Wilkinson, R. T. (1988). Eye movements and the detection of sleep onset. Psychophysiology, 26, 81–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Ornitz, E. M., & Guthrie, D. (1989). Long-term habituation and sensitization of the acoustic startle response in the normal adult human. Psychophysiology, 26(2), 166–173.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. Ost, L., & Hugdahl, K. (1985). Acquisition of blood and dental phobia and anxiety response patterns in clinical patients. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 23, 27–34.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. Ost, L. G., Sterner, U., & Lindahl, I. L. (1984). Physiological responses in blood phobics. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 22(2), 109–117.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. Pagano, R. R., Rose, R. M., Stivers, R. M., & Warrenburg, S. (1976). Sleep during transcendental meditation. Science, 191, 308–310.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. Paul, G. L. (Ed.). (1986). Assessment in residential treatment settings. Champaign, IL: Research Press.Google Scholar
  160. Paul, G. L. (Ed.). (1987a). The staff-resident interaction chronograph. Champaign, IL: Research Press.Google Scholar
  161. Paul, G. L. (Ed.). (1987b). The time-sample behavioral checklist. Champaign, IL: Research Press.Google Scholar
  162. Paul, G. L., & Lentz, R. J. (1977). Psychosocial treatment of chronic mental patients: Milieu versus social-learning programs. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  163. Paul, G.L., Mariotto, M. J., & Redfield, J. P. (1986). Sources and methods for gathering information in formal assessment. In G. L. Paul (Ed.), Assessment in residential treatment settings (pp. 27–62). Champaign, IL: Research Press.Google Scholar
  164. Pelham, W. E., & Milich, R. (1991). Individual differences in response to ritalin in classwork and social behavior. In L. Greenhill & B. P. Osman (Eds.), Ritalin: Theory and patient management (pp. 203–221). New York: MaryAnn Liebert.Google Scholar
  165. Pelham, W. E., Jr., McBurnett, K., Harper, G. W., Milich, R., Murphy, D. A., Clinton, J. C., & Thiele, C. (1990). Methylphenidate and baseball playing in ADHD children: Who’s on first? Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 58, 130–133.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. Pilsbury, D., & Hibbert, G. (1987). An ambulatory system for long-term continuous monitoring of transcutaneous pCO2. Bulletin of European Physiopathological Respiration, 23, 9–13.Google Scholar
  167. Porcino, L. J., Rapoport, J. L., Behar, D., Sceery, W., Ismond, D. R., & Bunney, W. E., Jr. (1983). A naturalistic assessment of the motor activity of hyperactive boys: I. Comparison with normal controls. Archives of General Psychiatry, 40, 681–687.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Porges, S. W., McCabe, P.M., & Youngue, B. G. (1982). Respiratory heart rate interactions: Psychophysiological implications for pathophysiology and behavior. In J. T. Cacioppo & R. E. Petty (Eds.), Perspectives in cardiovascular psychophysiology. New York: Guilford press.Google Scholar
  169. Pritchard, W. S. (1986). Cognitive event-related correlates of schizophrenia. Psychological Bulletin, 100, 43–66.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. Raine, A., & Venables, P. H. (1987). Contingent negative variation, P3 evoked potentials, and antisocial behavior. Psychophysiology, 24, 191–199.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. Raine, A., & Venables, P. H. (1988). Enhanced P3 evoked potentials and longer P3 recovery times in psychopaths. Psychophysiology, 25, 30–38.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. Rowland, L. A., & Canavan, A. G. (1983). Is a B.A.T. therapeutic? Behavioral Psychotherapy, 11, 139–146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Roy-Byrne, P. P., Cowley, D. S., Greenblatt, D. J., Shader, R. I., & Hommer, D. (1990). Reduced benzodiazepine sensitivity in panic disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry, 47, 534–538.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. Scherer, K. R. (1987). Vocal assessment of affective disorders. In J. D. Maser (Ed.), Depression and expressive behavior (pp. 57–82). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  175. Schlundt, D. G., & McFall, R. M. (1985). New directions in the assessment of social competence and social skills. In L. LAbate & M. A. Milan (Eds.), Handbook of social skills training and research (pp. 22–49). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  176. Schneider, W. (1988). Micro experimental laboratory: An integrated system for IBM PC compatibles. Behaviour Research Methods, Instruments, and Computers, 20, 206–217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. Schwartz, G. E. (1986). Emotion and psychophysiological organization: A system approach. In M. G. H. Coles, E. Donchin, & S. W. Porges (Eds.), Psychophysiology: Systems, processes and applications (pp. 354–377). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  178. Schwartz, R., & Michelson, L. (1987). States of mind model: Cognitive balance in the treatment of agoraphobia. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 55 557–565.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. Servais, S. B., Webster, J. G., & Montoye, H. J. (1984). Estimating human energy expenditure using an accelerometer device. Journal of Clinical Engineering, 9, 159–170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. Shapiro, D. H., Jr., & Walsh, R. N. (1984). Meditation: Classic and contemporary perspectives. New York: Aldine.Google Scholar
  181. Shear, M. K., & Fyer, M. R. (1988). Biological and psychophysiologic findings in panic disorder. In A. J. France & R. E. Hales (Eds.), American psychiatric press review of psychiatry, Volume 7 (pp. 29–53). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.Google Scholar
  182. Shear, M. K., Harshfield, G. A., Polan, J., Mann, J., & Frances, A. (1983). Autonomic function in panic disorder patients (abstract). Psychophysiology, 20, 470.Google Scholar
  183. Sherwood, A., Allen, M. T., Fahrenberg, J., Kelsey, R. M., Lovallo, W. R., & van Doornen, L. J. P. (1990). Committee report: Methodological guidelines for impedance cardiography. Psychophysiology, 27, 1–23.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. Siever, L. J., Keefe, R., Bernstein, D. P. Q., Coccaro, E. F., Klar, H. M., Zemishlany, Z., Peterson, A. E., Davidson, M., Mahon, T., Torvath, T., & Mohs, R. (1990). Eye tracking impairment in clinically identified patients with schizotypal personality disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 147(6), 740–745.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. Simpson, A., & Turpin, G. (1983). A device for ambulatory skin conductance monitoring. Psychophysiology, 20(2), 225–229.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. Smith, G. R., Monson, R. A., & Ray, D. C. (1986). Psychiatric consultation in somatization disorder: A randomized study. New England Journal of Medicine, 22(22), 1407–1413.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. Stemmler, G. (1989). The autonomic differentiation of emotions revisited: Convergent and discriminant validation. Psychophysiology, 26(6), 617–632.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. Stevens, J. R., Bigelow, L., Denny, D., Lipkin, J., Livermore, A. H., Rauscher, F., & Wyatt, R. J. (1979). Telemetered EEG-EOG during psychotic behaviors of schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry, 36, 251–262.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. Suen, H. K., & Ary, D. (1989). Analyzing quantitative behavioral observation data. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  190. Switzer, E. B., Deal, T. E., & Bailey, J. S. (1977). The reduction of stealing in second graders using a group contingency. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 10, 267–272.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. Tart, C. (1969). (Ed.) Altered states of consciousness. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  192. Tassinary, L. G., Cacioppo, J. T., & Green, T. R. (1989). A psychometric study of surface electrode placements for facial electromyographic recording: I. The brow and cheek muscles. Psychophysiology, 26(1), 1–16.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  193. Taylor, C. B., Agras, W. S., Schneider, J. A., & Allen, R. A. (1983). Adherence to instructions to practice relaxation exercises. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 51, 952–953.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. Taylor, C. B., Telch, M. J., & Havvik, D. (1983). Ambulatory heart rate changes during panic attacks. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 17, 261–266.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. Taylor, C. B., Sheikh, J., Agras, W. S., Roth, W. T., Margraf, J., Ehlers, A., Maddock, R. J., & Gossard, D. (1986). Ambulatory heart rate changes in patients with panic attacks. American Journal of Psychiatry, 143, 478–482.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. Taylor, C. B., Fried, L., & Klein, J. (1990). The use of real-time computer diary for acquisition and processing. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 28, 93–97.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. Thakor, N. V., Yang, M., Amaresan, M., Reiter, E., Hoen-Saric, R., & McLeod, D. R. (in press). A microcomputer-based ambulatory monitor for anxiety disorders. Journal of Ambulatory Monitoring.Google Scholar
  198. Torsvall, L., Akerstedt, T., Gillander, K., & Knutsson, A. (1989). Sleep on the night shift: 24-hour EEG monitoring of spontaneous sleep/wake behavior. Psychophysiology, 26(3), 352–358.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  199. Trandel, D. V., & McNally, R. J. (1987). Perception of threat cues in post-traumatic stress disorder: Semantic processing without awareness. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 25, 469–476.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  200. Trower, P., Bryant, B., & Argyle, M. (1978). Social skills and mental health. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press.Google Scholar
  201. Turner, S. M., Beidel, D. C., & Epstein, L. H. (1991). Vulnerability and risk for anxiety disorders. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 5, 151–166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. Turpin, G., Shin, P., & Lader, M. (1983). Ambulatory electrodermal monitoring: Effects of ambient temperature, general activity, electrolyte media and length of recording. Psychophysiology, 20, 219–224.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. Turpin, G. (1986). Effects of stimulus intensity on autonomie responding: The problem of differentiating orienting and defense reflexes. Psychophysiology, 23(1),1–14.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  204. Tursky, B. R., & Jamner, L. D. (1982). Measurement of cardiovascular functioning. In J. T. Cacioppo & R. E. Petty (Eds.), Perspectives in cardiovascular psychophysiology. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  205. Twentyman, C., Boland, T., & McFall, R. M. (1981). Heterosocial avoidance in college males: Four studies. Behavior Modification, 5, 523–552.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. Vrana, S. R., Cuthbert, B. N., & Lang, P. J. (1986). Fear imagery and text processing. Psycho-physiology, 23(3), 247–253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. Vrana, S. R., Cuthbert, B. N., & Lang, P. J. (1989). Processing fearful and neutral sentences: Memory and heart rate change. Cognition and Emotion, 3, 179–195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. Watson, D., Clark, L. A., & Tellegen, A. (1988). Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: The PANAS scales. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54, 1063–1070.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  209. Webb, E. J., Campbell, D. T., Schwartz, R. D., Sechrest, L., & Grove, J. B. (1981). Non-reactive measures in the social sciences (2nd ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin.Google Scholar
  210. Weiss, B. L., Foster, G., Reynolds, C. F., & Kupfer, D. J. (1974). Psychomotor activity in mania. Archives of General Psychiatry, 31, 379–383.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  211. Weiss, R. L., & Summers, K. J. (1983). Marital interaction coding system III. In E. E. Filsinger (Ed.), Marriage and family assessment (pp. 85–116). Beverly Hills: Sage.Google Scholar
  212. Weiss, T., del Bo, A., Reichek, N., & Engelman, K. (1980). Pulse transit time in the analysis of autonomic nervous system effects on the cardiovascular system. Psychophysiology, 17, 202–207.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  213. Westall, R., Perksey, M. N., & Chute, D. L. (1986). Accurate millisecond timing on Apple’s Macintosh using Drexel’s MilliTimer. Behaviour Research Methods and Instrumentation, 18, 307–311.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  214. White, W. B., & Baker, L. H. (1987). Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in patients with panic disorder. Archives of Internal Medicine, 147, 1973–1975.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  215. White, W. B., & Baker, L. H. (1986). Episodic hypertension secondary to panic disorder. Archives of Internal Medicine, 146, 1129–1130.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  216. Wielgus, M. S., & Harvey, P D. (1988). Dichotic listening and recall in schizophrenia and mania. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 14, 689–700.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  217. Williams, J. M., & Broadbent, K. (1986). Distraction by emotional stimuli: Use of a Stroop task with suicide attempters. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 8, 14–18.Google Scholar
  218. Williams, R. B., Jr. (1984). Measurement of local blood flow during behavioral experiments: Principles and practice. In J. A. Herd, A. M. Gotto, P. G. Kaufmann, & S. M. Weiss (Eds.), Cardiovascular instrumentation. Proceedings of the working conference on applicability of new technology to biobehavioral research (pp. 207–218). (NIH Publication No. 84-1654). Washington, DC: U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services: National Institutes of Health.Google Scholar
  219. Williams, R. B., Bittker, T. E., Buchsbaum, M. S., & Wynne, L. C. (1975). Cardiovascular and neurophysiologic correlates of sensory intake and rejection: I. Effect of cognitive tasks. Psychophysiology, 12, 427–433.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  220. Zahn, T. P (1986). Psychophysiological approaches to psychopathology In G. H. Coles, E. Donchin, & S.W. Porges (Eds.), Psychophysiology: Systems, processes, and applications (pp. 508–611). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rolf G. Jacob
    • 1
  • Carolyn Brodbeck
    • 2
  • Duncan B. Clark
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Psychiatry, Western Psychiatric Institute and ClinicUniversity of Pittsburgh School of MedicinePittsburghUSA
  2. 2.Division of PsychologyHahnemann UniversityPhiladelphiaUSA

Personalised recommendations