Pathology of the Peripheral Nervous System

  • Eugene R. Delay
  • Walter Isaac
Part of the Critical Issues in Neuropsychology book series (CINP)

Abstract

While pathology of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) is not usually considered to be within the province of the neuropsychologist, such pathology may complicate, or confuse, an attempt to evaluate a dysfunction of the central nervous system (CNS). Many PNS disorders, or neuropathies, often go unrecognized since they produce symptoms similar to other functional and organic disorders that the neuropsychologist frequently encounters. In addition, the types of processes that result in CNS dysfunction also are capable of affecting the PNS, including trauma (e.g., compression or entrapment injuries), toxins, infectious diseases, malnutrition, alcoholism, and genetic disorders. Not being aware of some of the more common disorders involving the PNS can lead to misdiagnosis and inappropriate treatment for the patient thought to have a CNS disorder. As with any medical disorder, precise evaluation and treatment of neuropathies should be done by a practitioner competent to do so. However, a familiarity with the general features of peripheral neuropathies is essential for the neuropsychologist to identify the presence of these disorders, distinguish between peripheral and central symptoms and signs, and at the same time, recognize potential limitations imposed by a peripheral disorder on procedures used to assess CNS functions. The intent of this chapter is to provide information that can help neuropsychologists address these issues.

Keywords

Peripheral Neuropathy Cranial Nerve Peripheral Nervous System Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Optic Neuritis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Albers, J. W., & Kelly, J. J., Jr. (1989). Acquired inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathies: Clinical and electrodiagnostic features. Muscle & Nerve, 12, 435–451.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Appenzeller, O. (1987). Autonomic neuropathies. In W. B. Matthews (Ed.), Handbook of clinical neurology, Vol. 7 (51): Neuropathies (pp. 475–490). Amsterdam: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  3. Bailey, R. O., Baltch, A. L., Venkatesh, R., Singh, J. K., & Bishop, M. B. (1988). Sensory motor neuropathy associated with AIDS. Neurology, 38, 886–891.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ball, N. A., Stempien, L. M., Pasupuleti, D. V, & Wertsch, J. J. (1989). Radial nerve palsy: A complication of walker usage. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 70, 236–238.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Baloh, R. W., Jacobson, K., & Honrubia, V (1989). Idiopathic bilateral vestibulopathy. Neurology, 39, 272–275.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bays, H. E., & Pfiefer, M. A. (1988). Peripheral diabetic neuropathy. Medical Clinics of North America, 72, 1439–1464.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Behse, F., & Buchthal, F. (1977). Alcoholic neuropathy: Clinical, electrophysiological, and biopsy findings. Annals of Neurology, 2, 95–110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bleecker, M. L., Bohlman, M., Moreland, R., & Tipton, A. (1985). Carpal tunnel syndrome: Role of carpal canal size. Neurology, 35, 1599–1604.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Boghen, D. R., & Glaser, J. S. (1975). Ischaemic optic neuropathy. The clinical profile and natural history. Brain, 98, 689–708.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Brown, M. J., & Greene, D. A. (1984). Diabetic neuropathy: Pathophysiology and management. In A. K. Asbury & R. W. Gilliatt (Eds.), Neurology 4. Peripheral nerve disorders: A practical approach (pp. 126–153). London: Butterworths International Medical Reviews.Google Scholar
  11. Cannon, L. J., Bernacki, E. J., & Walter, S. D. (1981). Personal and occupational factors associated with carpal tunnel syndrome. Journal of Occupational Medicine, 23, 255–258.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Chaunu, M.-P, Ratinahirana, H., Raphael, M., Hénin, D., Leport, C., Brun-Vezinet, E, Léger, J.-M., Brunet, P, & Hauw, J.-J. (1989). The spectrum of changes on 20 nerve biopsies in patients with HIV infection. Muscle & Nerve, 12, 452–459.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Church, A. (1890). Multiple neuritis. Journal of the American Medical Association, 15, 636–640.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Cook, S. D., & Dowling, P. C. (1981). The role of autoantibody and immune complexes in the pathogenesis of Guillain-Barré syndrome. Annals of Neurology, 9 (Suppl.), 70–79.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cornblath, D. R., & McArthur, J. C. (1988). Predominantly sensory neuropathy in patients with AIDS, and AIDS-related complex. Neurology, 38, 794–796.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cornblath, D. R., McArthur, J. C., Kennedy, P. G. E., Witte, A. S., & Griffin, J. W. (1987). Inflammatory demyelinating peripheral neuropathies associated with human T-cell lymphotropic virus type III infection. Annals of Neurology, 21, 32–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Cosgrove, J. L., Vargo, M., & Reidy, M. E. (1989). A prospective study of peripheral nerve lesions occurring in traumatic brain-injured patients. American Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 68, 15–17.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Craddock, C., Pasvol, G., Bull, R., Protheroe, A., & Hopkin, J. (1987, July 4). Cardiorespiratory arrest and autonomic neuropathy in AIDS. The Lancet, 2(8549), 16–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Critchley, E. M. R. (1987). Neuropathies due to drugs. In W. B. Matthews (Ed.), Handbook of clinical neurology, Vol. 7 (51): Neuropathies (pp. 293–314). Amsterdam: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  20. Currie, J., Benson, E., Ramsden, B., Perdices, M., & Cooper, D. (1988). Eye movement abnormalities as a predictor of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome dementia complex. Archives of Neurology, 45, 949–953.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Darley, F. L., Aronson, A. E., & Brown, J. R. (1969). Differential diagnostic patterns of dysarthria. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 12, 246–269.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Dawson, D. M., Samuels, M. A., & Morris, J. (1988). Sensory form of acute polyneuritis. Neurology, 38, 1728–1731.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Dawson, G. D, & Scott, J. W. (1949). The recording of nerve action potentials through skin in man. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry, 12, 259–267.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. de la Monte, S. M., Gabuzda, D. H., Ho, D. D, Brown, R. H., Jr., Hedley-Whyte, E. T., Schooley, R. T., Hirsch, M. S., & Bhan, A. K. (1988). Peripheral neuropathy in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Annals of Neurology, 23, 485–492.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Delwaide, P. J. (1987). Alcoholic neuropathy. In W. B. Matthews (Ed.), Handbook of clinical neurology, Vol. 7 (51): Neuropathies (pp. 315–320). Amsterdam: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  26. Dix, R. D, & Bredesen, D. E. (1988). Opportunistic viral infections in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. In M. L. Rosenblum, R. M. Levy, & D E. Bredesen (Eds.), AIDS and the nervous system (pp. 221–261). New York: Raven Press.Google Scholar
  27. Donofrio, P. D, Alessi, A. G., Albers, J. W., Knapp, R. H., & Blaivas, M. (1989). Electrodiagnostic evolution of carcinomatous sensory neuronopathy. Muscle & Nerve, 12, 508–513.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Dowling, P. C., Blumberg, B. M., & Cook, S. D. (1987). Guillain-Barré syndrome. In W. B. Matthews (Ed.), Handbook of clinical neurology, Vol. 7 (51): Neuropathies (pp. 239–262). Amsterdam: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  29. Dubinsky, R. M., Yarchoan, R., Dalakas, M., & Broder, S. (1989). Reversible axonal neuropathy from the treatment of AIDS and related disorders with 2′,3′-dideoxycytidine (ddC). Muscle & Nerve, 12, 856–860.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Dyck, P. J. (1984). Inherited neuronal degeneration and atrophy affecting peripheral motor, sensory, and autonomic neurons. In P. J. Dyck, P. K. Thomas, E. H. Lambert, & R. Bunge (Eds.), Peripheral neuropathy, Vol. II (pp. 1600–1642). Philadelphia: Saunders.Google Scholar
  31. Dyck, P. J., & Arnason, B. G. W. (1984). Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy. In P. J. Dyck, P. K. Thomas, E. H. Lambert, & R. Bunge (Eds.), Peripheral neuropathy, Vol. II (pp. 2101–2114). Philadelphia: Saunders.Google Scholar
  32. Ecker, A. D, & Woltman, H. W. (1938). Meralgia paraesthetica: A report of one hundred and fifty cases. Journal of the American Medical Association, 110, 1650–1652.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Eckman, P B., Perlstein, G., & Altrocchi, P. H. (1975). Ulnar neuropathy in bicycle riders. Archives of Neurology, 32, 130–131.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Ellenberg, M. (1978). Diabetic truncal mononeuropathy—A new clinical syndrome. Diabetes Care, 1, 10–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Entin, M. A. (1968). Carpal tunnel syndrome and its variants. Surgical Clinics of North America, 48, 1097–1112.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Falck, B., & Aarnio, P (1983). Left-sided carpal tunnel syndrome in butchers. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 9, 291–297.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Fealey, R. D., Low, P. A., & Thomas, J. E. (1989). Thermoregulatory sweating abnormalities in diabetes mellitus. Mayo Clinic Proceedings, 64, 617–628.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Feeney, D. J., Pollard, J. D., McLeod, J. G., Stewart, G. J., & De Lange, G. G. (1989). Gm haplotypes in inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathies. Annals of Neurology, 26, 790–792.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Feldman, R. G., Goldman, R., & Keyserling, W. M. (1983). Peripheral nerve entrapment syndromes and ergonomie factors. American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 4, 661–681.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Franceschi, M., Truci, G., Comi, G., Lozza, L., Marchettini, R, Galardi, G., & Smirne, S. (1984). Cognitive deficits and their relationship to other neurological complications in chronic alcoholic patients. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry, 47, 1134–1137.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Freeman, W. R., Henderly, D. E., Lipson, B. K., Rao, N. A., & Levine, A. M. (1989). Retinopathy before the diagnosis of AIDS. Annals of Ophthalmology, 21, 468–474.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Fuller, G. N., Jacobs, J. M., & Guiloff, R. J. (1989, October 21). Association of painful peripheral neuropathy in AIDS with cytomegalovirus infection. The Lancet, 2(8669), 937–941.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Gabuzda, D. H., & Hirsch, M. S. (1987). Neurologic manifestations of infection with human immunodeficiency virus. Annals of Internal Medicine, 107, 383–391.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Goldberg, J. M., & Lindblom, U. (1979). Standardized method of determining vibratory perception thresholds for diagnosis and screening in neurological investigation. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry, 42, 793–803.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Greene, D. A., & Brown, M. J. (1987). Diabetic polyneuropathy. Seminars in Neurology, 7, 18–29.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Gross, J. G., Sadun, A. A., Wiley, C. A., & Freeman, W R. (1989). Severe visual loss related to isolated peripapillary retinal and optic nerve head cytomegalovirus infection. American Journal of Ophthalmology, 108, 691–698.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Hamed, L. M., Winward, K. E., Glaser, J. S., & Schatz, N. J. (1989). Optic neuropathy in uremia. American Journal of Ophthalmology, 108, 30–35.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Hanner, P., Andersen, O., Frisén, L., Rosenhall, U., & Edström, S. (1987). Clinical observations of effects on central nervous system in patients with acute facial palsy. Archives of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, 113, 516–520.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Hartman, D. E. (1984). Neurogenic dysphonia. Annals of Otology, Rhinology, and Laryngology, 93, 57–64.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Hawley, R. J., Kurtzke, J. F., Armbrustmacher, V. W., Saini, N., & Manz, H. (1982). The course of alcoholic-nutritional peripheral neuropathy. Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, 66, 582–589.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Hennis, H. L., Scott, A. A., & Apple, D. J. (1989). Cytomegalovirus retinitis. Survey of Ophthalmology, 34, 193–203.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Hess, R. F., & Plant, G. T. (1983). The effect of temporal frequency variation on threshold contrast sensitivity deficits in optic neuritis. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry, 46, 322–330.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Hillbom, M., & Wennberg, A. (1984). Prognosis of alcoholic peripheral neuropathy. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry, 47, 699–703.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Hodes, R., Larrabee, M. G., & German, W. (1948). The human electromyogram in response to nerve stimulation and the conduction velocity of motor axons. Archives of Neurology and Psychiatry, 60, 340–365.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Hogenhuis, L. A. H. (1987). Endocrine polyneuropathies. In W. B. Matthews (Ed.), Handbook of clinical neurology, Vol. 7 (51): Neuropathies (pp. 497–528). Amsterdam: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  56. Holland, G. E., & Kreiger, A. E. (1988). Neuroophthalmology of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. In M. L. Rosenblum, R. M. Levy, & D. E. Bredesen (Eds.), AIDS and the nervous system (pp. 103–120). New York: Raven Press.Google Scholar
  57. Hurwitz, E. S., Holman, R. C., Nelson, D. B., & Schonberger, L. B. (1983). National surveillance for Guillain-Barré syndrome: January 1978-March 1979. Neurology, 33, 150–157.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Jakobsen J., Smith, T., Gaub, J., Helweg-Larsen, S., & Trojaborg, W. ([1989). Progressive neurological dysfunction during latent HIV infection. British Medical Journal, 299, 225–228.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Janssen, R. S., Saykin, A. J., Cannon, L., Campbell, J., Pinsky, P. E, Hessol, N. A., O’Malley, P M., Lifson, A. R., Doll, L. S., Rutherford, G. W, & Kaplan, J. E. (1989). Neurological and neuropsychological manifestations of HIV-1 infection: Association with AIDS-related complex but not asymptomatic HIV-1 infection. Annals of Neurology, 26, 592–600.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Johnson, R. H., & Robinson, B. J. (1988). Mortality in alcoholics with autonomic neuropathy. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry, 51, 476–480.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Kao, L. Y, Huang, L., & Chen, T. T. (1989). Anterior ischemic optic neuropathy—Recurrent attacks in one eye in a bilateral case. Annals of Ophthalmology, 21, 71–74.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Karma, A., Gummerus, S., Kujansuu, E., & Pitkäjärvi, T. (1987). Predicting diabetic retinopathy. Acta Opthalmologica, 182 (Suppl.), 136–139.Google Scholar
  63. Kaufman, M. D., Hopkins, L. C., & Hurwitz, B. J. (1981). Progressive sensory neuropathy in patients without carcinoma: A disorder with distinctive clinical and electrophysiological findings. Annals of Neurology, 9, 237–242.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Kemppainen, R., Juntunen, J., & Hillbom, M. (1982). Drinking habits and peripheral alcoholic neuropathy. Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, 65, 11–18.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Kikta, D. G., Breuer, A. C., & Wilbourn, A. J. (1982). Thoracic root pain in diabetes: The spectrum of clinical and electromyographic findings. Annals of Neurology, 11, 80–85.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Kinnunen, E., Färkkilä, M., Hovi, T., Juntunen, J., & Weckström, P. (1989). Incidence of Guillain-Barré syndrome during a nationwide oral poliovirus vaccine campaign. Neurology, 39, 1034–1036.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Kline, L. B., Morawetz, R. B., & Swaid, N. S. (1984). Indirect injury of the optic nerve. Neurosurgery, 14, 756–764.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Lange, D. J., Britton, C. B., Younger, D. S., & Hays, A. P. (1988). The neuromuscular manifestations of human immunodeficiency virus infections. Archives of Neurology, 45, 1084–1088.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Lederman, R. J. (1989). Peripheral nerve disorders in instrumentalists. Annals of Neurology, 26, 640–646.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Lesseil, S. (1989). Indirect optic nerve trauma. Archives of Ophthalmology, 107, 382–386.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Lipkin, W. I., Parry, G., Kiprov, D., & Abrams, D. (1985). Inflammatory neuropathy in homosexual men with lymphadenopathy. Neurology, 35, 1479–1483.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Lorance, R. W., Kaufman, D., Wray, S. H., & Mao, C. (1987). Contrast visual testing in neurovisual diagnosis. Neurology, 37, 923–929.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Low, P. A. (1987). Autonomic neuropathy. Seminars in Neurology, 7, 49–57.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Luxon, L. M. (1986). Disorders of hearing. In A. K. Asbury, G. M. McKhann, & W. I. McDonald (Eds.), Diseases of the nervous system: Clinical neurobiology (pp. 544–560). Philadelphia: Saunders.Google Scholar
  75. Lyon-Caen, O., Jouvent, R., Hauser, S., Chaunu, M.-P, Benoit, N., Widlöcher, D, & Lhermitte, F. (1986). Cognitive function in recent-onset demyelinating diseases. Archives of Neurology, 43, 1138–1141.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Mah, V, Vartavarian, L. M., Akers, M.-A., & Vinters, H. V. (1988). Abnormalities of peripheral nerve in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Annals of Neurology, 24, 713–717.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Mann, R. A., & Plattner, P. F. (1989). Nerve entrapment syndromes of the foot and ankle: Part I. In R. M. Szabo (Ed.), Nerve compression syndromes: Diagnosis and treatment (pp. 273–291). Thorofare, N.J.: Slack.Google Scholar
  78. Matthews, W. B. (Ed.). (1987). Handbook of clinical neurology, Vol. 7 (51): Neuropathies. Amsterdam: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  79. Matzen, L. E., Larsen, J. B., & Frøland, A. (1986). Hypertension—A risk factor for proliferative retinopathy. Transplantation Proceedings, 18, 1571.Google Scholar
  80. McDonald, W. I. (1963). The effects of experimental demyelination on conduction in peripheral nerve: A histological and electrophysiological study. Brain, 86, 501–524.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Meldgaard, B., Andersen, K., Ahlgren, P., Danielsen, U. T., & Sørensen, H. (1984). Peripheral neuropathy, cerebral atrophy, and intellectual impairment in chronic alcoholics. Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, 70, 336–344.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Merzenich, M. M., & Kaas, J. H. (1982). Reorganization of mammalian somatosensory cortex following peripheral nerve injury. Trends in Neuroscience, 5, 434–436.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Miller, E. N., Seines, O. A., McArthur, J. C., Satz, P, Becker, J. T, Cohen, B. A., Sheridan, K., Machado, A. M., Van Gorp, W. G., & Visscher, B. (1990). Neuropsychological performance in HIV-1-infected homosexual men: The multicenter AIDS cohort study (MACS). Neurology, 40, 197–203.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Miller, R. G., Kiprov, D. D, Parry, G., & Bredesen, D. E. (1988a). Peripheral nervous system dysfunction in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. In M. L. Rosenblum, R. M. Levy, & D. E. Bredesen (Eds.), AIDS and the nervous system (pp. 65–78). New York: Raven Press.Google Scholar
  85. Miller, R. G., Parry, G. J., Pfaeffl, W., Lang, W, Lippert, R., & Kiprov, D. (1988b). The spectrum of peripheral neuropathy associated with ARC and AIDS. Muscle & Nerve, 11, 857–863.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Navia, B. A., Jordan, B. D, & Price, R. W. (1986). The AIDS dementia complex: I. Clinical features. Annals of Neurology, 19, 517–524.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Newsom-Davis, J., Thomas, P K., & Spalding, J. M. K. (1984). Diseases of the ninth, tenth, eleventh, and twelfth cranial nerves. In P J. Dyck, P. K. Thomas, E. H. Lambert, & R. Bunge (Eds.), Peripheral neuropathy, Vol. II (pp. 1337–1350). Philadelphia: Saunders.Google Scholar
  88. Parry, G. J. (1988). Peripheral neuropathies associated with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Annals of Neurology, 23 (Suppl.), S49–S53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Pirart, J. (1978a). Diabetes mellitus and its degenerative complications: A prospective study of 4400 patients observed between 1947 and 1973. (Part 1). Diabetes Care, 1, 168–188.Google Scholar
  90. Pirart, J. (1978b). Diabetes mellitus and its degenerative complications: A prospective study of 4400 patients observed between 1947 and 1973. (Part 2). Diabetes Care, 1, 252–263.Google Scholar
  91. Ranee, N. E., McArthur, J. C., Cornblath, D. R., Landstrom, D. L., Griffin, J. W., & Price, D. L. (1988). Gracile tract degeneration in patients with sensory neuropathy and AIDS. Neurology, 38, 265–271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Sandberg-Wollheim, M., Bynke, H., Cronqvist, S., Holtås, S., Platz, P., & Ryder, L. P. (1990). A long-term prospective study of optic neuritis: Evaluation of risk factors. Annals of Neurology, 27, 386–393.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Sasaki, H., Nanjo, K., Yamada, M., Naka, K., Bessho, H., Kikuoka, H., Satogami, E., Matsumoto, G., Emoto, M., & Miyamura, K. (1988). Diabetic neuropathy as a heterogeneous syndrome: Multivariate analysis of clinical and neurological findings. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, 4, 215–222.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Schaafsma, S. J. (1970). Plexus injuries. In P. J. Vinken & G. W. Bruyn (Eds.), Handbook of clinical neurology, Vol. 7; Diseases of nerves, Part I (pp. 402–429). Amsterdam: North-Holland.Google Scholar
  95. Schaumburg, H. H., Spencer, P S., & Thomas, P. K. (1983). Disorders of peripheral nerves. Philadelphia: Davis.Google Scholar
  96. Schonberger, L. B., Hurwitz, E. S., Katona, P., Holman, R. C., & Bregman, D. J. (1981). Guillain-Barré syndrome: Its epidemiology and associations with influenza vaccination. Annals of Neurology, 9 (Suppl.), 31–38.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Schwarz, A., Keller, E, Seyfert, S., Pool, W, Molzahn, M., & Distler, A. (1984). Carpal tunnel syndrome: A major complication in long-term hemodialysis patients. Clinical Nephrology, 22, 133–137.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Scott, A. R., Bennett, T., & MacDonald, I. A. (1987). Diabetes mellitus and thermoregulation. Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology, 65, 1365–1376.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Sidtis, J. J., & Price, R. W. (1990). Early HIV-1 infection and the AIDS dementia complex. Neurology, 40, 323–326.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Simpson, D. M., & Bender, A. N. (1988). Human immunodeficiency virus-associated myopathy: Analysis of 11 patients. Annals of Neurology, 24, 79–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Sjöstrand, J., & Abrahamsson, M. (1982). Suprathreshold vision in acute optic neuritis. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry, 45, 227–234.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Sosenko, J. M., Gadia, M. T., Fournier, A. M., O’Connell, M. T., Aguiar, M. C., & Skyler, J. S. (1986). Body stature as a risk factor for diabetic sensory neuropathy. American Journal of Medicine, 80, 1031–1034.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Sosenko, J. M., Gadia, M. T., Natori, N., Ayyar, D. R., Ramos, L. B., & Skyler, J. S. (1987). Neurofunctional testing for the detection of diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Archives of Internal Medicine, 147, 1741–1744.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Spaans, F. (1970). Occupational nerve lesions. In P J. Vinken & G. W. Bruyn (Eds.), Handbook of clinical neurology, Vol. 7: Diseases of nerves, Part I (pp. 326–343). Amsterdam: North-Holland.Google Scholar
  105. Spaans, F. (1987). Compression and entrapment neuropathies. In W. B. Matthews (Ed.), Handbook of clinical neurology, Vol. 7 (51): Neuropathies (pp. 85–118). Amsterdam: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  106. Staal, A. (1970). The entrapment neuropathies. In P. J. Vinken & G. W. Bruyn (Eds.), Handbook of clinical neurology, Vol. 7: Diseases of nerves, Part I (pp. 285–325). Amsterdam: North-Holland.Google Scholar
  107. Sterman, A. B., Schaumburg, H. H., & Asbury, A. K. (1980). The acute sensory neuronopathy syndrome: A distinct clinical entity. Annals of Neurology, 7, 354–358.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Stewart, J. D. (1987). Focal peripheral neuropathies. Amsterdam: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  109. Stewart, J. D. (1989). Diabetic truncal neuropathy: Topography of the sensory deficit. Annals of Neurology, 25, 233–238.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Sun, S. E, & Streib, E. W. (1981). Diabetic thoracoabdominal neuropathy: Clinical and electrodiagnostic features. Annals of Neurology, 9, 75–79.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Sutjahjo, A., Taniguchi, H., Hendromartono, Tjokroprawiro, A., & Baba, S. (1988). High frequency of autonomic as well as peripheral neuropathy in patients with malnutrition-related diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, 5, 197–200.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Swift, T. R., & Rivner, M. H. (1987). Infectious diseases of nerve. In W. B. Matthews (Ed.), Handbook of clinical neurology, Vol. 7 (51): Neuropathies (pp. 179–194). Amsterdam: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  113. Szabo, R. M. (1989). Carpal tunnel syndrome. In R. M. Szabo (Ed.), Nerve compression syndromes: Diagnosis and treatment (pp. 101–120). Thorofare, N.J.: Slack.Google Scholar
  114. Thomas, P K., & Eliasson, S. G. (1984). Diabetic neuropathy. In P. J. Dyck, P. K. Thomas, E. H. Lambert, & R. Bunge (Eds.), Peripheral neuropathy, Vol. II (pp. 1773–1810). Philadelphia: Saunders.Google Scholar
  115. Trautmann, J. C., & Barnett, C. R. (1984). Diseases of the third, fourth, and sixth cranial nerves. In P. J. Dyck, P. K. Thomas, E. H. Lambert, & R. Bunge (Eds.), Peripheral neuropathy, Vol. II (pp. 1203–1223). Philadelphia: Saunders.Google Scholar
  116. Vallat, J. M. (1989). Sensory Guillain-Barré syndrome. Neurology, 39, 879.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. van Dongen, H. R., Arts, W. F. M., & Yousef-Bak, E. (1987). Acquired dysarthria in childhood: An analysis of dysarthric features in relation to neurologic deficits. Neurology, 37, 296–299.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Van Gorp, W. G., Miller, E. N., Satz, P., & Visscher, B. (1989). Neuropsychological performance in HIV-1 immunocompromised patients: A preliminary report. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 11, 763–773.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Walker, D. W., Hunter, B. E., & Abraham, W. C. (1981). Neuroanatomical and functional deficits subsequent to chronic ethanol administration in animals. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 5, 267–282.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Ward, P. H., Cannon, D, & Lindsay, J. R. (1965). The vestibular system in multiple sclerosis. The Laryngoscope, 75, 1031–1047.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Wartenberg, R. (1958). Neuritis, sensory neuritis, neuralgia. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  122. Wechsler, I. S. (1933). Etiology of polyneuritis. A.M.A. Archives of Neurology and Psychiatry, 29, 813–827.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Wechsler, I. S. (1938). Multiple peripheral neuropathy versus multiple neuritis. Journal of the American Medical Association, 110, 1910–1913.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Wiley, C. A. (1989). Neuromuscular diseases of AIDS. The FASEB Journal, 3, 2503–2511.Google Scholar
  125. Williamson, R. T. (1922). The vibrating sensation in diseases of the nervous system. American Journal of Medical Science, 164, 715–727.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Wilmot, C. B., Cope, D. N., Hall, K. M., & Acker, M. (1985). Occult head injury: Its incidence in spinal cord injury. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 66, 227–231.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Windebank, A. J. (1987). Peripheral neuropathy due to chemical and industrial exposure. In W. B. Matthews (Ed.), Handbook of clinical neurology, Vol. 7 (51): Neuropathies (pp. 263–292). Amsterdam: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  128. Winward, K. E., Hamed, L. M., & Glaser, J. S. (1989). The spectrum of optic nerve disease in human immunodeficiency virus infection. American Journal of Ophthalmology, 107, 373–380.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Wynn Parry, C. B. (1980). Pain in avulsion lesions of the brachial plexus. Pain, 9, 41–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Wynn Parry, C. B. (1987). Brachial plexus injuries. In W. B. Matthews (Ed.), Handbook of clinical neurology, Vol. 7 (51): Neuropathies (pp. 143–155). Amsterdam: Elsevier.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • Eugene R. Delay
    • 1
  • Walter Isaac
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyRegis UniversityDenverUSA
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyUniversity of GeorgiaAthensUSA

Personalised recommendations