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Deinstitutionalization and Reinstitutionalization of the Mentally Ill

  • Milton Greenblatt
Part of the Topics in Social Psychiatry book series (TSPS)

Abstract

In modern history, three great shifts in concepts and practice in the treatment of the mentally ill are recognized. The first “revolution” followed the political and intellectual liberation of humans arising from the struggles of the French Revolution. Its counterpart in the mental hospitals of the day was moral treatment, a philosophy expounded by Philippe Pinel,1 which emphasized kindness, forbearance, and a personalized approach to patients. Pinel claimed that the mentally ill generally did not demonstrate recognizable lesions of the brain and would respond to enlightened tolerance and understanding without the necessity of chains, straitjackets, or other punitive measures. His philosophy spread throughout Europe and then to America, where the early hospitals, founded on principles of moral treatment, boasted gratifying therapeutic results even in seriously ill patients. Indeed, Parke’s2 remarkable follow-up of patients admitted to the Worcester (Massachusetts) State Hospital, the first of its kind in the nation, showed that the majority of persons admitted with less than a year’s evidence of mental illness eventually could be discharged as recovered.

Keywords

American Psychiatric Association Mental Health System Joint Commission Mental Hospital Homeless Person 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • Milton Greenblatt
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Sciences, and San Fernando Valley Program in PsychiatryUniversity of California, Los AngelesLos AngelesUSA
  2. 2.Department of PsychiatryOlive View Medical CenterSylmarUSA

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