Advertisement

Complexity

  • John P. van Gigch

Abstract

Complexity is one of the aspects of systems hardest to characterize. Therefore, we will summarize the current views of several workers who have contributed to defining or explaining what is meant by complexity. This diversity of meanings is the best demonstration of the inherent difficulty in capturing all the facets of complexity.

Keywords

Objective Complexity System Objective True System Hierarchical Arrangement Epistemological Level 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. 1.
    G. J. Klir, Architecture of Systems Problem Solving (Plenum, New York, 1985).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    G. J. Klir, Syst. Res. 2, 131 (1985).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    R. L. Flood, Syst. Res. 4, 177 (1988).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    R. L. Flood and R. L. Carson, Dealing With Complexity (Plenum, New York, 1988).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    W. Weaver, Am. Sci. 36, 536 (1968).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    R. L. Flood, Syst. Res. 4, 177 (1988).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    M. Maruyama, Am. Sci. 51, 164, 250 (1963).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    B. Clemson, Cybernetics: A New Management Tool, Cybernetics and Systems Series (Abacus, Tunbridge Wells, Kent, 1984).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    P. Checkland, Systems Thinking, Systems Practice (Wiley, New York, 1981).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    R. L. Henneman and W. B. Rouse, IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern. SMC-16, 193 (1986).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    H. A. Simon, The Sciences of the Artificial (MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 1969).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    J. P. van Gigch, Behav. Sci. 21, 490 (1976).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    H. A. Simon, Proc. Am. Philos. Soc. 106, 467 (1962); in H. A. Simon, The Sciences of the Artificial, Ref. 11.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    H. A. Simon, The Sciences of the Artificial, Ref. 11.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    M. Ways, Fortune (April, 1971).Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    D. Wilson, Gen. Syst. 14, 3 (1964).Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    E. Laszlo, Gen. Syst. 19, 37 (1974).Google Scholar
  18. H. H. Pattee, ed., Hierarchy Theory (Braziller, New York, 1973), especially Chapter 4 and Postscript.Google Scholar
  19. 18.
    H. A. Simon, The Sciences of the Artificial, Ref. 11, p. 86.Google Scholar
  20. 19.
    A. H. Maslow, Motivation and Personality (Harper & Row, New York, 1954).Google Scholar
  21. 20.
    James V. Clark, Human Organization 19, 199 (1960–61).Google Scholar
  22. 21.
    H. A. Simon, The Sciences of the Artificial, Ref. 11, p. 105.Google Scholar
  23. 22.
    H. A. Simon, The Sciences of the Artificial, Ref. 11, pp. 103, 106.Google Scholar
  24. 23.
    H. A. Simon, The Sciences of the Artificial, Ref. 11, p. 108n.Google Scholar
  25. 24.
    H. A. Simon, The Sciences of the Artificial, Ref. 11, pp. 106-108.Google Scholar
  26. 25.
    H. A. Simon, The Shape of Automation (Harper & Row, New York, 1965), p. 58.Google Scholar
  27. 26.
    A. Newell, Progress in Operations Research, Vol. III (J. Aronofsky, ed.) (Wiley, New York, 1969), p. 365.Google Scholar
  28. 27.
    A. Newell, in Progress in Operations Research, Ref. 26, pp. 371-373.Google Scholar
  29. 28.
    A. Newell, in Progress in Operations Research, Ref. 26, p. 374.Google Scholar
  30. 29.
    H. A. Simon, The Sciences of the Artificial, Ref. 11, p. 110.Google Scholar
  31. 30.
    A. Newell, in Progress in Operations Research, Ref. 26, pp. 375, 404.Google Scholar
  32. 31.
    E. Yourdon, Design of On-Line Computer Systems (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1972).Google Scholar
  33. B. Kernighan and B. Plauger, Software Tools (Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA, 1976).Google Scholar
  34. R. Kernighan and B. Plauger, The Elements of Programming Style (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1974).Google Scholar
  35. E. Yourdon, Techniques of Program Structure and Design (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1975).Google Scholar
  36. E. Yourdon and L. Constantine (Yourdon, New York, 1975).Google Scholar
  37. E. Yourdon, E. Gane, and T. Sarson, Learning to Program in Structure COBOL (Yourdon, New York, 1976).Google Scholar
  38. 32.
    L. L. Braidwood and R. W. Kuhnel, “A Comparison of Computer Algorithm Representation Methods,” BA 210 Research Methodology Project; L. Hanger, “Structured Design and Complex Systems,” BA 214 Paper, both School of Business and Public Administration, California State University, Sacramento, Summer and Fall (1976), respectively.Google Scholar
  39. 33.
    J. Bright, Automation and Management (Harvard U. Press, Cambridge, MA, 1958).Google Scholar
  40. 34.
    E. R. Crossman and S. Laner, The Impact of Technological Change on Manpower and Skill Demand: Case Study Data and Policy Implications. Prepared for the Manpower Administration, U.S. Department of Labor, Berkeley, CA; University of California, Department of Industrial Engineering and Operations Research (1969); J. P. van Gigch, The Impact of Technology on the Mental Content of Work in Industrial Operations, Ph.D. diss., Oregon State U. (1968).Google Scholar
  41. 35.
    J. P. van Gigch, Cdn. Oper. Res. J. 8, 116 (1970).Google Scholar
  42. J. P. van Gigch, Cdn. Oper. Res. J. 8, 128 (1970); see also.Google Scholar
  43. J. P. van Gigch, Int. J. Man-Mach. Stud. 3, 13 and 201 (1971).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 36.
    John P. van Gigch, Behav. Sci. 21, 490 (1976).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 37.
    M. D. Mesarovic, D. Macko, and Y. Takahara, Theory of Hierarchical, Multilevel Systems (Academic Press, New York, 1970).Google Scholar
  46. 38.
    H. W. Kuhn and A. W. Tucker, in Proceedings of the Second Berkeley Symposium on Mathematical Statistics and Probability (J. Neyman, ed.) (U. of California Press, Berkeley, 1951).Google Scholar
  47. 39.
    T. C. Koopmans, in Activity Analysis of Production and Allocation, Cowles Commission Monograph No. 13 (T.C. Koopmans, ed.) (Wiley, New York, 1951).Google Scholar
  48. 40.
    T. Marschak, Econometrica 27 (1959).Google Scholar
  49. 41.
    G. Dantzig and Ph. Wolfe, Oper. Res. 8 (1960).Google Scholar
  50. 42.
    J. E. Hass, Manage. Sci. 14, B311 (1968).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 43.
    A. Whinston, in New Perspectives in Organizational Research (W. W. Cooper, H. J. Leavitt, and M. W. Shelley II, eds.) (Wiley, New York, 1964), pp. 405–448.Google Scholar
  52. 44.
    A. Charnes, R. W. Clower, and K. O. Kortanek, Econometrica 35 (1967).Google Scholar
  53. 45.
    L. A. Zadeh, IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern. SMC-1, 28 (1974).Google Scholar
  54. 46.
    R. Penrose, The Emperor’s New Mind: Concerning Computers, Minds, and the Laws of Physics (Oxford U. Press, New York and London, 1989).Google Scholar
  55. 47.
    V. Goel and P. Pirolli, “Motivating the Notion of Generic Design Within Information Theory: The Design Problem Space,” AI Magazine, 10, 18–36 (1989).Google Scholar
  56. 48.
    J. P. van Gigch, Beh. Sc. 35, 122 (1990).CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • John P. van Gigch
    • 1
  1. 1.California State UniversitySacramentoUSA

Personalised recommendations