Interrogation of Residual Stresses of Machined Surface by an X-ray Diffraction Technique
The surface quality of a machined product is a very important consideration in determining process parameters. Due to the inherent nature of the machining process, there always exists a certain amount of residual stress in the material after machining. This paper presents the results of the surface interrogation of machined workpieces by using an x-ray diffraction technique. The machining tests were performed with 4140 hot rolled steel at two speeds. During the tests, tool wear and surface finish were measured and compared to the measured residual stresses. The results show that the x-ray diffraction technique provides valuable information regarding the machining process and if used as an in-process monitoring method could provide a sensing technique for intelligent processing of materials.
KeywordsResidual Stress Tool Wear Flank Wear Residual Stress Measurement Average Residual Stress
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 3.H. K. Tonshoff and F. Hetz, Influence of Thermal and Mechanical Impacts on Fatigue in Precision Grinding, “Advances in Surface Treatments,” Pergamon Press, Oxford, (1984).Google Scholar
- 4.N. H. Polakowshi, Effect of Residual Stress on Yielding and Strain-Agening of Carbon Steel, J. Iron Steel Inst., pp. 369-376, (1952).Google Scholar
- 5.L. P. Tarasov, W. S. Hyler and H. R. Letner, Effect of Grinding Conditions and Resultant Residual Stresses on the Fatigue Strength of Hardened Steel, Proc. Am. Soc. Test. Mat. 57, pp. 601–622, (1957).Google Scholar
- 6.E. Brinksmeier et. al, Residual Stresses — Measurement and Causes in Machining Processes Annals of the CIRP, Vol. 31/2, pp. 491–510, (1982).Google Scholar
- 12.M. Field, J. F. Kahles and J. T. Cammett, A Review of Measuring Methods for Surface Integrity, Annals of the CIRP, Vol. 21/2, pp. 219–238, (1972).Google Scholar
- 13.O. S. Es-said and J. G. Morris, A Method to Calculate the Resistivity of Strip Cast 300 Series Aluminum Alloys Based on their Nominal Solute Content, NDC of Mat. II, Plenum Press, pp. 271-280, (1987).Google Scholar
- 14.S. R. Buxbaumn and R. E. Green, Ultrasonic Characterization of Titanium 6211 Weld Materials, Nondestructive Methods for Mat. Prop. Pet., Plenum Pres, pp. 271-288, (1984).Google Scholar
- 15.F. Zankl, D. G. Barkow and A. O. Schmidt, X-Ray Diffraction as a Gage for Measuring Cold Work Produced in Milling, Trans. of ASME, pp. 307-318, (1947).Google Scholar
- 16.Y. Matsumoto, M. M. Barash and C. R. Liu, Residual Stress in the Machined Surface of Hardened Steel, ASME PED-Vol. 12. pp. 193-204, (1984).Google Scholar
- 18.C. O. Ruud, Position-Sensitive Detector Improves X-Ray Powder Diffraction, Ind. R&D, pp. 84-86, (1983).Google Scholar
- 19.SAE, Residual Stress Measurement by X-Ray Diffraction — SAE J784a, Soc. of Auto. Engr., 400 Commonwealth Dr., Warrendale, PA (1971).Google Scholar
- 20.C. O. Ruud, “Application of a Position Sensitive Sintilation Detector to Nondestructive X-Ray Diffraction Characterization of Metallic Components,” Nondest. Methods for Mat. Prop. Meas., Plenum Press, pp 21-38, (1984).Google Scholar