Beyond Hard Systems Thinking

  • Paul Keys
Part of the Contemporary Systems Thinking book series (CST)


The relationship discussed in Chapter 7 between OR and a set of hard systems methodologies places OR in a localized context by establishing a methodological connection between OR and a range of other systems-based problem-solving methodologies. The assumptions of this common methodological process provide a basis for identifying the boundaries within which hard systems methodologies can operate effectively. Outside these boundaries other methodologies are required which are able to overcome the restrictions present in the hard systems methodologies. It is the purpose of this chapter to present an overview of some systems-based approaches which can operate outside the boundaries of hard systems thinking.


System Thinking System Idea Soft System Methodology Repertory Grid Viable System Model 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • Paul Keys
    • 1
  1. 1.University of HullHullUK

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