The Effect of Race on Puerto Rican Wages

  • Clara E. Rodriguez
Part of the Environment, Development and Public Policy book series (EDPP)


The manner in which Hispanic individuals chose to identify themselves by race in the 1980 census was quite different from the manner in which non-Hispanics chose to classify themselves. Although 40% of all Latinos classified themselves as neither white nor black, but as other, fewer than 2% of non-Hispanics in any state used this classification. This classification accounted for 7 5 million of all Latinos in the United States. For Puerto Ricans who were living in New York, the group that was the focus of this research, 48% responded that they were other and wrote in an additional Spanish descriptor (i.e., they were Boricua, Puerto Rican, etc.). Another 44% said they were white and 3.9% said they were black.1 Thus, it would appear from these results that Latino racial identity, as revealed in the 1980 census, is a complex and intriguing phenomenon.2


Labor Market Wage Rate English Proficiency Racial Identity Hourly Wage 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Arce, C. H., E. Murguia, and W. P. Frisbie. (1987). Phenotype and life chances among Chicanos. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 9 (1), 19–32.Google Scholar
  2. Bean, F., and M. Tienda. (1988). Hispanic population in the U. S. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
  3. Berle, B. (1958). 80 Puerto Rican Families in New York City. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  4. Blinder, A. S. (1976). On dogmatism in human capital theory. Journal of Human Resources, 11 (1), 8–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Borjas, G. (1983). The labor supply of male Hispanic immigrants in the United States. International Migration Review, 17, 4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Borjas, G., and M. Tienda. (1985). Hispanics in the U. S. Economy. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  7. Bonilla, F., and R. Campos. (1981). A wealth of poor: Puerto Ricans in the new economic order. Daedulus, 110 (2), 133–176.Google Scholar
  8. Carlson, L. A., and C. Swartz. (1988). The earnings of women and ethnic minorities. Industrial and Labor Relations Review, 41 (4), 530–552.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chenault, L. (1970). The Puerto Rican migrant in New York City. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  10. Chevan, A. (1990). “Hispanic racial identity: Beyond social class.” Paper presented at the American Sociological Association meetings, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  11. Colon, J. (1961). A Puerto Rican in New York and other sketches. New York: International Publishers.Google Scholar
  12. Denton, N. A., and D. S. Massey. (1989). Racial identity among Caribbean Hispanics: The effect of double minority status on residential segregation. American Sociological Review, 54, 790–808.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Fitzpatrick, J. S. J. (1971). Puerto Rican Americans. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  14. Garcia, P. (1984). Dual language characteristics and earnings: Male Mexican workers in the U. S. Social Science Research, 13 (3), 221–235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Giles, H., N. Llado, D. J. McKiman, and D. M. Taylor. (1979). Social identity in Puerto Rico. International Journal of Psychology, 14 (3), 185–201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Glazer, N., and D. P. Moynihan. (1970). Beyond the melting pot ( 2nd ed. ). Cambridge: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  17. Gosnell-Aran, P. (1945). The Puerto Ricans in New York City. Unpublished doctoral dissteration, New York University.Google Scholar
  18. Grenier, G. (1984). Shifts to English as usual by Americans of Spanish mother tongue. Social Science Quarterly, 65, 537–550.Google Scholar
  19. Handlin, O. (1959). The newcomers: Negroes and Puerto Ricans in a changing metropolis. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  20. Heckman, J. (1974). Shadow prices, market wages, and labor supply. Econometrica, 42 (4), 679–694.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Iglesias, C. A. (1980). Memorias de Bernardo Vega: Una contribución a la historia de la comunidad Puertorriquena en Nueva York. Rio Piedras P.R.: Ediciones Huracen.Google Scholar
  22. Kasarda, J. D. (1985). Urban change and minority opportunities. In The Brookings Institution, The new urban reality. Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  23. Kasarda, J. D., and J. Friedrichs. (1985). Comparative demographic-employment mismatches in U. S. and West German cities. Research in the Sociology of Work, 3, 1–30.Google Scholar
  24. Katzman, M. (1968). Discrimination, subculture and the economic performance of Negroes, Puerto Ricans and Mexican-Americans. American Journal of Economics and Society, 27 (4), 371–375.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Longres, J. F. (1974). Racism and its effects on Puerto Rican continentals. Social Casework, February, 1974, 67–99.Google Scholar
  26. Martin, E., T. J. DeMaio, and P. C. Campanelli. (1988). Context effects for census measures of race and Hispanic origin. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Statistical Association, New Orleans, La.Google Scholar
  27. Malzberg, B. (1967). Internal migration and mental disease among the white population of New York State, 1960–61. International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 14 (3), 184–191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Melendez, E. (1988). Labor market structure and wage inequality in New York City: A comparative analysis of Hispanics and non–Hispanic Blacks and Whites. Final Report to the Inter–University Program, Committee on Public Policy Research on Contemporary Latino Research, Grant number: 26–7502–1928.Google Scholar
  29. Mills, C. W., C. Senior, and R. Goldsen. (1950). The Puerto Rican journey: New York’s newest migrants. New York: Harper.Google Scholar
  30. Mintz, S. W. (1960). Worker in the cane: A Puerto Rican life history. New Haven CT: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  31. Nelson, C., and M. Tienda. (1985). The structuring of Hispanic ethnicity: Historical and contemporary perspectives. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 8 (1), 49–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Padilla, E. (1958). Up from Puerto Rico. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  33. Petrullo, V. (1947). Puerto Rican paradox. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.Google Scholar
  34. Reimers, C. (1983). Labor market discrimination among Hispanic and Black men. Review of Economics and Statistics, 65 (4), 570–579.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Reimers, C. (1984a). Sources of the family income differentials among Hispanics, Blacks and White Non-Hispanics,“ American Journal of Sociology, 89 (4), 889–903.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Reimers, C. (1984b). The wage structure of Hispanic men: Implications for policy. Social Science Quarterly, 65 (2), 401–416.Google Scholar
  37. Reimers, C. (1985). Cultural differences in labor force participation among married women. American Economics Association Papers and Proceedings, 75 (2), 251–255.Google Scholar
  38. Rios, P. (1985) Puerto Rican women in the United States labor market. Line of March, 18 (Fall), 1985.Google Scholar
  39. Rivera, E. (1983). Family installments: Memories of growing up Hispanic. New York: Penguin.Google Scholar
  40. Rodriguez, C. E. (1974). Puerto Ricans: Between Black and White. Journal of New York Affairs, 1 (4), 92–101.Google Scholar
  41. Rodriguez, C. E. (1988). Puerto Ricans and the circular migration thesis. Journal of Hispanic Policy, 3, 5–9.Google Scholar
  42. Rodriguez, C. E. (1989c). Puerto Ricans: Born in the USA. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.Google Scholar
  43. Rodriguez, C. E. (1990). Racial classification among Puerto Rican men and women in New York. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 12 (4).Google Scholar
  44. Rosenzweig, M. R. (1976). Nonlinear earnings functions, age, and experience: A nondogmatic reply and some additional evidence. Journal of Human Resources, 11 (1), 23–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Santana-Cooney, R. (1979). Intercity variations in Puerto Rican female participation. Journal of Human Resources, 14 (2), 222–235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Santana-Cooney, R. and A. Colon-Warren (1984). Work and family: The recent struggle of Puerto Rican families. In C. Rodriguez, V. Sanchez-Korrol, and O. Alers, Eds., The Puerto Rican struggle: Essays on survival in the U. S. Maplewood, NJ: Waterfront Press.Google Scholar
  47. Senior, C. (1965). Strangers, then neighbors: From pilgrims to Puerto Ricans. Chicago: Quadrangle Books.Google Scholar
  48. Steward, J. H., Manners, R. A., Wolff, E. R., Padilla Seda, E., Mintz, S. W., and Scheele, R. L. (1956). The people of Puerto Rico: A study in social anthropology. Chicago-Urbana: University of Illinois Press.Google Scholar
  49. Telles, E. E., and E. Murguia. (1990). Phenotypic discrimination and income differences among Mexican Americans. Social Science Quarterly, 71 (4).Google Scholar
  50. Teichner, V. J., and G. W. Berry. (1981). The Puerto Rican patient: Some historical and psychological aspects. Journal of the American Academy of Psychoanalysis, 9 (2), 277–289.Google Scholar
  51. Thomas, P. (1967). Down these mean streets. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.Google Scholar
  52. Tienda, M. (1983a). Market characteristics and Hispanic earnings: A comparison of natives and immigrants. Social Problems, 31 (1), 59–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Tienda, M. (1983b). Nationality and income attainment among native and immigrant Hispanic men in the United States. Sociological Quarterly, 24, 253–272.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Tienda, M. (1985). The Puerto Rican workers: Current labor market status and future prospects. In National Puerto Rican Coalition, Inc., Puerto Ricans in the mid ‘80s: An American challenge. Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  55. Tienda, M., and J. Glass. (1985). Household structure and labor force participation of Black, Hispanic, and White mothers. Demography, 22 (3), 381–394.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Tienda, M., and L. J. Niedert. (1984). Language, education and the socioeconomic achievement of Hispanic origin men. Social Science Quarterly, 65, 519–536.Google Scholar
  57. Tienda, M., and V. Ortiz. (1986). “Hispanicity” and the 1980 Census. Social Science Quarterly, 67(1), 3–20.Google Scholar
  58. Torres, A. (1988). Human capital, labor segmentation and inter-minority relative status: Blacks and Puerto Rican labor in New York City, 1960–1980. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, New School for Social Research.Google Scholar
  59. lùmin, M., and A. Feldman. (1961). Social class and social change in Puerto Rico ( 2nd ed. ). Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  60. Waldinger, R. (1985). Immigration and industrial change in the New York City apparel industry. In: G. Borjas and M. Tienda, Eds., Hispanics in the U. S. economy. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  61. Wilson, W. J. (1987). The truly disadvantaged: The inner city, the underclass and public policy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • Clara E. Rodriguez
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of the Social SciencesFordham University at Lincoln CenterNew YorkUSA

Personalised recommendations