Latino Research and Policy

The Puerto Rican Case
  • Andres Torres
  • Clara E. Rodriguez
Part of the Environment, Development and Public Policy book series (EDPP)

Abstract

For quite some time students of the Latino experience have been aware that Latinos in the United States are in a difficult and vulnerable economic situation. Government policy addressing the economically disadvantaged position of Latinos has been limited and proven less than successful. This analysis will therefore focus on one Latino group to examine the reasons for this policy failure. As an extreme case of Latino disadvantage, the plight of Puerto Ricans provides a litmus test of the efficacy of policy as it affects all Latinos, as well as the commitment of the federal government to the eradication of inequality in all its forms.

Keywords

Labor Market Latino Group Small Business Loan Public Policy Research Labor Force Experience 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Aponte, R. (1988). Employment and poverty among blacks and Puerto Ricans in the urban north. Paper presented at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Seminar Series, “Puerto Ricans and the Changing Northeast Economy,” Cambridge, MA.Google Scholar
  2. Association of Puerto Rican Executive Directors (APRED). (1990). A call to action. Presented to the black and Puerto Rican caucus of the New York State Legislature, Albany, February 17, 1990.Google Scholar
  3. Bean, F., and M. Tienda. (1988). Hispanic population in the U. S. New York: Russell Sage.Google Scholar
  4. Bonilla, F. (1989). Breaking out of the cycle of poverty. Washington, DC: National Puerto Rican Coalition.Google Scholar
  5. Binilla, F., and R. Campos. (1981). A wealth of poor: Puerto Ricans in the new economic order. Daedulus, 110(2), 133–176.Google Scholar
  6. Borjas, G. (1985). Jobs and employment for Hispanics. In P. San-Juan Cafferty and W. C. McCready, Eds., Hispanics in the United States. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Books.Google Scholar
  7. Burtless, G. (1986). Public spending for the poor: Trends, prospects, and economic limits. In S. H. Danziger and D. H. Weinberg, Eds., Fighting poverty: What works and what doesn’t. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  8. Cafferty, P., and C. Rivera-Martinez. (1981). The politics of language. Boulder, CO: Westview Press. Center on Budget and Policy Priorities. (1988). Shortchanged: Recent developments in Hispanic poverty, income and employment. Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  9. Community Service Society. (1989). Poverty in New York City, 1985–88: The crisis continues. New York: Author.Google Scholar
  10. Corcoran, M., G. Duncan, G. Gurin, and P. Gurin. (1985). Myth and reality: The causes and persistence of poverty. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 4 (4), 516–536.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Danziger, S. (1989). Overview. Focus, 12, 1.Google Scholar
  12. Fligstein, N., and R. Fernandez. (1985). Hispanics in education. In P. San Juan-Cafferty and W. C. McCready, Eds., Hispanics in the United States. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Books.Google Scholar
  13. Glazer, N. (1986). Education and training programs and poverty. In S. H. Danziger and D. H. Weinberg, Eds., Fighting poverty: What works and what doesn’t. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  14. Hayes-Bautista, D. (1990). Intellectual framework for a multicultural society: Demographic change and intellectual traditions. Paper presented at the National Conference on Latino Research Perspectives in the 1990s, Pomona, California.Google Scholar
  15. Hernandez, J. (1976). Social factors in educational attainment among Puerto Ricans in U. S. metropolitan areas. New York: Aspira of America.Google Scholar
  16. Hernandez, J. (1980). Social science and the Puerto Rican community. In C. E. Rodriguez, V. Sanchez Korrol, and J. A. Alers, Eds., The Puerto Rican struggle: Essays on survival in the U. S. Maplewood, NJ: Waterfront Press.Google Scholar
  17. Hernandez, J. (1983). Puerto Rican youth employment. Maplewood, NJ: Waterfront Press.Google Scholar
  18. Hernandez, J. (1990). Latino alternatives to the underclass concept. Latino Studies Journal, 1, (1), 95–105.Google Scholar
  19. Hirschman, A. O. (1984). Getting ahead collectively: Grassroots experiences in Latin America. New York: Pergamon Press.Google Scholar
  20. Hispanic Policy Development Project. (1988). Closing the gap for U. S. Hispanic youth: Publicl private strategies. Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  21. History Task Force, Centro de Estudios Puertorriquenos. (1979). Labor migration under capitalism: The Puerto Rican experience. New York: Monthly Review.Google Scholar
  22. Institute for Puerto Rican Policy. (1989). Toward a Puerto Rican/Latino agenda for New York City. New York: Author.Google Scholar
  23. IUP/SSRC Committee for Public Policy Research. (1990). New directions for Latino public policy research. Austin: The Center for Mexican American Studies, University of Texas.Google Scholar
  24. Jencks, C. (1986). Comment. In S. H. Danziger and D. H. Weinberg, Eds., Fighting poverty: What works and what doesn’t. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  25. Jorge, A. (1984). The Puerto Rican study 1953–57: Its character and impact on Puerto Ricans in New York City. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, New York University.Google Scholar
  26. Lopez, A. (1973). The Puerto Rican papers. New York: Bobbs-Merrill.Google Scholar
  27. Lopez, A., and J. Petras. (1974) Puerto Rico and Puerto Ricans. Cambridge, MA: Schenkman.Google Scholar
  28. Maldonado, R. (1976). Why Puerto Ricans migrated to the United States in 1947–73. Monthly Labor Review, 99(9), 7–18.Google Scholar
  29. McGahey, R. (1982). Poverty’s voguish stigma. New York Times, March 12, A29.Google Scholar
  30. Melendez, E. (1988). Labor market structure and wage inequality in New York City: A comparative analysis of Hispanics, non-Hispanic blacks and whites. Cambridge, MA: MIT Department of Urban Studies and Planning.Google Scholar
  31. Morris, M. (1989). From the culture of poverty to the underclass: An analysis of a shift in public language. American Sociologist, 20 (2), 123–133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. National Puerto Rican Coalition. (1988). Public policy agenda, 1988–1990. Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  33. New York City Board of Education. (1958). The Puerto Rican study, 1953–57. ( J. Cayce Morrison, Chair ).Google Scholar
  34. Niemi, A. M. (1974). Wage discrimination against Negroes and Puerto Ricans in the New York SHSA: An assessment of educational and occupational differences. Social Sciences Quarterly, 55 (June).Google Scholar
  35. Puerto Rican community development project (PRCDP). (1965). New York: Puerto Rican Forum.Google Scholar
  36. Reimers, C. (1983). Labor market discrimination against Hispanic and black men. Review of Economics and Statistics, 45 (November).Google Scholar
  37. Ricketts, E., and I. Sawhill. (1988). Defining and measuring the underclass. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 7 (2), 316–325.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Rodriguez, C. (1974). The ethnic queue: The case of Puerto Ricans in the U. S. San Francisco, CA: R and E Research Associates.Google Scholar
  39. Rodriguez, C. (1979). Economic factors affecting Puerto Ricans in the U. S. In History Task Force, Centro de Estudios Puertorriquenos, Labor migration under capitalism: The Puerto Rican experience. New York: Monthly review.Google Scholar
  40. Rodriguez, C. (1989). Race, class and gender among Puerto Ricans in New York. Report submitted to the Inter-University Program for Latino Research. Austin, TX: University of Texas.Google Scholar
  41. Rosaldo, R. (1989). Culture and truth: The remaking of social analysis. Boston: Beacon Press. Sandefur, G. D., and A. Pahari. (1988). Racial and ethnic inequality in earnings and educational attainment. University of Wisconsin-Madison, Institute for Research on Poverty, DP #863–88.Google Scholar
  42. Sandefur, G. D., and M. Tienda. (1988). Divided opportunities: Minorities, poverty, and social policy. New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  43. Sawhill, I. (1988). Poverty in the U. S.: Why is it so persistent? Journal of Economic Literature, 26 (3), 1073–1119.Google Scholar
  44. Schon, L., and D. Schon. (1988). Within our reach: Breaking the cycle of disadvantage. Garden City, NY: Doubleday.Google Scholar
  45. Silk, L. (1990). The denial of the obvious. New York Times, March 9, 1990, D2.Google Scholar
  46. Tienda, M. (1989). Puerto Ricans and the underclass debate. Annals, 501, 105–119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Tienda, M., and L. Jensen. (1988). Poverty and minorities: A quarter century profile of color and socioeconomic disadvantage. In G. D. Sandefur and M. Tienda, Eds., Divided Opportunities: Minorities, poverty, and social policy. New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  48. Tones, A. (1973). Puerto Rican employment in New York. New Generation, 53 (4), 12–17.Google Scholar
  49. Tones, A. (1988). Human capital, labor segmentation and inter-minority relative status Doctoral dissertation, New School for Social Research, New York.Google Scholar
  50. Tones, R. D. (1989). Latinos, economy and politics of inequality: Policy alternatives in the post-Reagan era. La Red, 2 (4), 24–32.Google Scholar
  51. U. S. Bureau of the Census. (1963). U. S. Census of Population: 1960, Subject Reports. Puerto Ricans in the United States. Final Report PC(2)-1D. Washington, DC: U. S. Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  52. U. S. Bureau of the Census. (1989). The Hispanic population in the U. S.: March 1988. Washington, DC: U. S. Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  53. U. S. Commission on Civil Rights. (1972). Hearings on civil rights of Puerto Ricans. Demographic, social and economic characteristics of New York City and the New York metropolitan area. Staff Report, February, 1972.Google Scholar
  54. U. S. Commission on Civil Rights. (1976). Puerto Ricans in the continental United States: An uncertain future. Report submitted to the President and Congress, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  55. U. S. Department of Labor. (1968). Bureau of Labor Statistics. Labor force experience of the Puerto Rican worker. Regional Report No. 9 of Poverty Area Profiles, June, 1968, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  56. Velez, C. (1988). Networks of exchange among Mexicans in the U. S. and Mexico. Urban Anthropology and Studies of Cultural Systems and World Economic Development, 17 (1), 27–52.Google Scholar
  57. Wagenheim, K. (1975). A survey of Puerto Ricans on the U. S. mainland in the 1970s. New York: Praeger.Google Scholar
  58. Wilson, W. (1987). The truly disadvantaged: The inner city, the underclass and public policy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • Andres Torres
    • 1
  • Clara E. Rodriguez
    • 2
  1. 1.Center for Puerto Rican StudiesHunter College of the City University of New YorkNew YorkUSA
  2. 2.Division of the Social SciencesFordham University at Lincoln CenterNew YorkUSA

Personalised recommendations