The EAS Theory of Temperament

  • Arnold H. Buss
Part of the Perspectives on Individual Differences book series (PIDF)


Temperaments are here regarded as a subclass of personality traits, defined by: appearance during the first year of life, persistence later in life, and the contribution of heredity. The three personality traits that meet these criteria are emotionality, activity, and sociability, from which are derived the acronym EAS (Buss & Plomin, 1984). There are other individual differences that may be observed in infants, and other personality traits that are inherited, but only the three EAS traits meet both criteria.


Personality Trait Classical Conditioning Active Child Active People Cognitive Learning 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Bates, J.E. The concept of difficult temperament. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 1980, 26, 299–319.Google Scholar
  2. Bell, R.Q. Adaptation of small wristwatches for mechanical recording of activity in infants and children. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 1968, 6, 302–305.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Berscheid, E., & Walster, E.H. Interpersonal attraction (2nd ed.). Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1978.Google Scholar
  4. Block, J.H. Conceptions of sex role: Some cross-cultural and longitudinal perspectives. American Psychologist, 1973, 28, 512–526.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Buss, A.H. The psychology of aggression. New York: Wiley, 1961.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Buss, A.H., & Durkee, A. An inventory for assessing different kinds of hostility. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 1957, 21, 343–349.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Buss, A.H., & Plomin, R. A temperament theory of personality development. New York: Wiley, 1975.Google Scholar
  8. Buss, A.H., & Plomin, R. Temperament: Early developing personality traits. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, 1984.Google Scholar
  9. Cannon, W.B. Bodily changes in pain, hunger, fear and rage. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1929.Google Scholar
  10. Cheek, J.M., & Buss, A.H. Shyness and sociability. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1981, 47, 330–339.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Eaton, W.O. Measuring activity level with actometers: Reliability, validity, and arm length. Psychological Bulletin, 1983, 100, 19–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Eaton, W.O., & Enns, L.R. Sex differences in human motor activity level. Psychological Bulletin, 1986, 100, 19–28.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Ehrhardt, A.A. Gender differences: A biosocial perspective. In T.B. Sonderegger (Ed.). Nebraska symposium on motivation. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 1985.Google Scholar
  14. Ekman, P., & Friesen, W.V. Unmasking the face. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1975.Google Scholar
  15. Goy, R.W. Development of play and mounting behavior in female rhesus monkeys virilized prenatally with esters of testosterone or dihydrotestosterone. In D.J. Chivers & J. Herberts (Eds.). Recent advances in primatology. Vol. 1. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  16. Goy, R.W., & McEwen, B.S. Sexual differentiation of the brain. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1980.Google Scholar
  17. Harlow, H.F. Sexual behavior in rhesus monkeys. In F.A. Beach (Ed.). Sex and behavior. New York: Wiley, 1965.Google Scholar
  18. Holter, H. Sex role and social structure. Oslo: Universitforlaget, 1970.Google Scholar
  19. Maccoby, E.E., & Jacklin, C.N. The psychology of sex differences. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1974.Google Scholar
  20. Perry, M., & Buss, A.H. Correlates among social traits. Unpublished research, University of Texas, 1989.Google Scholar
  21. Rohner, R.P. Sex differences in aggression: Phylogenetic and enculturation perspectives. Ethos, 1976, 4, 57–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Schachter, S. The psychology of affiliation. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1959.Google Scholar
  23. Schulman, J.L., & Reisman, J.M. An objective measure of hyperactivity. American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 1959, 64, 455–456.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Smith, C. & Lloyd, B. Maternal behavior and the sex of infants. Child Development, 1978, 49, 1263–1265.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Thomas, A., & Chess, S. Temperament and development. New York: Brunner/Mazel, 1977.Google Scholar
  26. Tiger, L., & Fox, R. The imperial animal. New York: Holt, Rinehart, & Winston, 1971.Google Scholar
  27. Watson, D. Intraindividual and interindividual analyses of positive and negative affect: Their relation to health complaints, perceived stress, and daily activities. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1988, 54, 1020–1030.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Zuckerman, M. Sensation seeking: Beyond the optimal level of arousal. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, 1979.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • Arnold H. Buss
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of Texas at AustinAustinUSA

Personalised recommendations