Advertisement

Questionnaire Measurement of Infant and Child Temperament

Current Status and Future Directions
  • Elizabeth H. Slabach
  • Judy Morrow
  • Theodore D. Wachs
Part of the Perspectives on Individual Differences book series (PIDF)

Abstract

In 1982 Hubert, Wachs, Peters-Martin, and Gandour published a review on the psychometric adequacy of various paper-and-pencil measures used to assess temperament. This review documented a number of problems with available instruments, including inconsistent stability, low interparent agreement and questionable construct, and concurrent and predictive validity. In spite of the pessimistic conclusions of this review, plus the equally pessimistic conclusions of more recent reviews involving such issues as the definition of temperament (Crockenberg, 1986; Bornstein, Gaughran, & Homel, 1986), research on temperament continues at an “exponential” pace (Bates, 1986). Given that this continued interest involves efforts to generate new measures of temperament, as well as to revise old measures, an updated review of the psychometric adequacy of temperament questionnaires seems in order. Specifically, our concern was whether the psychometric problems documented by Hubert et al. in 1982 have continued to exist.

Keywords

Behavior Problem Child Behavior Divergent Validity Infant Behavior Child Temperament 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Affleck, G., Allen, D., McGrade, J., & McQueeney, M. Maternal and child characteristics associated with mothers’ perceptions of their high risk/developmentally delayed infants. The Journal of Genetic Psychology, 1983, 142, 171–180.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bates, J.E. The measurement of temperament. In R. Plomin & J. Dunn (Eds.). The study of temperament: Changes, continuities and challenges. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, 1986.Google Scholar
  3. Bates, J.E. Temperament in infancy. In J.D. Osofsky (Ed.). Handbook in infant development (2nd ed.). New York: Wiley, 1987.Google Scholar
  4. Bates, J.E. Concepts and measures of temperament. In G.A. Kohnstamm, J.E. Bates, & M.K. Rothbart (Eds.). Temperament in childhood. Chichester: Wiley, 1989.Google Scholar
  5. Bates, J.E., & Bayles, K. Objective and subjective components in mothers’ perceptions of their children from age 6 months to 3 years. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 1984, 30, 111–130.Google Scholar
  6. Bates, J.E., & Bayles, K. The role of attachment in the development of behavior problems. In J. Belsky & J. Nezworski (Eds.). Clinical implications of attachment. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, 1988.Google Scholar
  7. Bates, J.E., Maslin, C.A., & Frankel, K.A. Attachment security, mother-child interactions and temperament as predictors of behavior-problem ratings at age 3 years. In I. Bretherton & E. Waters (Eds.). Growing points of attachment theory and research. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 1985, 50 (1–2, Ser. No. 209).Google Scholar
  8. Bates, J., Olson, S.L., Pettit, G.S., & Bayles, K. Dimensions of individuality in the mother-infant relationship at 6 months of age. Child Development, 1982, 53, 446–461.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bathhurt, K., & Gottfried, A. Untestable subjects in child development research: Developmental implications. Child Development, 1987, 58, 1135–1144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bell, R., & Harper, L. Child effects on adults. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, 1977.Google Scholar
  11. Belsky, J., & Rovine, M. Temperament and attachment security in the strange situation: An empirical rapprochement. Child Development, 1987, 58, 787–795.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bender, W.N. Differences between learning disabled and non-learning disabled children in temperament and behavior. Learning Disability Quarterly, 1985a, 8, 11–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bender, W.N. Differential diagnosis based on task-related behavior of learning disabled and low-achieving adolescents. Learning Disability Quarterly, 1985b, 8, 261–266.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bender, W.N. Behavioral indicators of temperament and personality in the inactive learner. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 1987, 20, 301–305.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Berberian, K., & Snyder, S.S. The relationship of temperament and stranger reaction for younger and older infants. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 1982, 28, 79–94.Google Scholar
  16. Black, W., Gasparrini, B., & Nelson, R. Parental assessment of temperament in handicapped children. Journal of Personality Assessment, 1981, 45, 155–158.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Bornstein, M.H., Gaughran, J.M., & Homel, P. Infant temperament: Theory, tradition, critique, and new assessments. In C.E. Izard & P.B. Read (Eds.). Measuring emotions in infants and children. Vol. 2. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986.Google Scholar
  18. Bradshaw, D., Goldsmith, H., & Campos, J. Attachment, temperament, and social referencing: Interrelationships among three domains of infant affective behavior. Infant Behavior and Development, 1987, 10, 223–231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Brazelton, T., Nugent, J., & Lester B. Neonatal behavioral assessment scale. In J. Osofsky (Ed.). Handbook of infant development (2nd ed.). New York: Wiley, 1987.Google Scholar
  20. Buss, A.H., & Plomin, R. Temperament: Early developing personality traits. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, 1984.Google Scholar
  21. Cadwell, J., & Pullis, M. Assessing changes in the meaning of children’s behavior: Factorial invariance of teachers’ temperament ratings. Journal of Educational Psychology, 1983, 75, 553–560.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Carey, W.B. Temperament and increased weight gain in infants. Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 1985, 6, 128–131.Google Scholar
  23. Carey, W., Hegvik, R., & McDevitt, S.C. Temperamental factors associated with rapid weight gain and obesity in middle childhood. Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 1988, 9, 194–198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Carson, D., Sharpness, L., Schultz, N., & McGhee, P. Temperament and communicative competence as predictors of young children’s humor. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 1986, 32, 415–426.Google Scholar
  25. Crockenberg, S.B. Are temperamental differences in babies associated with predictable differences in caregiving. In J. Lerner, & R. Lerner (Eds.). Temperament and psychosocial interaction in children. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1986.Google Scholar
  26. Cutrona, B., & Troutman, B. Social support, infant temperament and parenting self-efficacy. Child Development, 1986, 57, 1507–1518.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. De Vries, M. Temperament and infant mortality among the Masai of East Africa. American Journal of Psychiatry, 1984, 141, 1189–1194.Google Scholar
  28. De Vries, M., & Sameroff, A. Culture and temperament: Influences on infant temperament in three East African societies. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 1984, 54, 83–96.Google Scholar
  29. Di Blasio, C., Bond, L., Wasserman, R., Creasey, G. Infant temperament and behavior problems at 6 to 7 years. Paper presented at the International Conference of Infant Studies. Washington, DC, April, 1988.Google Scholar
  30. Dunst, C., & Lingerfelt, B. Maternal ratings of temperament and operant learning in two-to three-month old infants. Child Development, 1985, 56, 555–563.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Earls, F., & Jung, K. Temperament and home environment characteristics as causal factors in the early development of childhood psychopathology. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 1987, 26, 491–498.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Eaton, W.O., & Enns, L. Sex differences in human motor activity level. Psychological Bulletin, 1986, 100, 19–28.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Fagen, J., & Ohr, P. Temperament and crying in response to the violation of a learned expectancy in early infancy. Infant Behavior and Development, 1985, 8, 157–166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Fagen, J., Ohr, P., Singer, J., & Fleckenstein, L. Infant temperament and subjects loss due to crying during parent conditioning. Child Development, 1987a, 58, 497–504.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Fagen, J., Singer, J., Ohr, P., & Fleckenstein, L. Infant temperament and performance on the Bayley Scales of Infant Development at 4, 8, & 12 months of age. Infant Behavior and Development, 1987b, 10, 505–512.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Feinman, S., & Lewis, M. Social referencing at ten months: A second order effect on infant’ response to strangers. Child Development, 1983, 54, 878–887.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Field, T., Vega-Lahr, N., Scafidi, F., & Goldstein, S. Reliability, stability and relationships between infant and parent temperament. Infant Behavior and Development, 1987, 10, 117–122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Fish, M., & Belsky, J. Continuity and discontinuity in infant temperament. Paper presented at the International Conference of Infant Studies. Washington, DC, April, 1988.Google Scholar
  39. Fullard, W., McDevitt, S.C., & Carey, W.B. Assessing temperament in one-to-three-year-old children. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 1984, 9, 205–216.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Gandour, M. Activity level as a dimension of temperament in toddlers: Its relevance for the organismic specificity hypothesis. Child Development, 1989, 60, 1092–1098.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Gibbs, M., Reeves, D., & Cunningham, C. The application of temperament questionnaires to a British sample: Issues of reliability and validity. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 1987, 28, 61–77.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Goldsmith, H. The Toddler Behavior Assessment-Questionnaire Manual. Department of Psychology, University of Oregon, 1987.Google Scholar
  43. Goldsmith, H., & Alansky, J. Construction of Q sort measures of temperament and their relation to security of attachment. Paper presented at the Society for Research in Child Development. Baltimore, April, 1987.Google Scholar
  44. Goldsmith, H.H., Buss, A.H., Plomin, R., Rothbart, M.K., Thomas, A., Chess, S., Hinde, R.A., & McCall, R.R. Roundtable: What is temperament? Four approaches. Child Development, 1987, 58, 505–529.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Goldsmith, H.H., & Campos, J.J. Fundamental issues in the study of early temperament: The Denver Twin Temperament Study. In M.E. Lamb, A.L. Brown, & B. Rogoff (Eds.). Advances in developmental psychology. Vol. 4. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, 1986.Google Scholar
  46. Goldsmith, H.H., Elliot, T.K., & Jaco, K.L. Construction and initial validation of a new temperament questionnaire. Infant Behavior and Development, 1986, 9, 144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Goldsmith, H.H., & Rieser-Danner, L. Assessing early temperament. In C.R. Reynolds, & R. Kamphaus (Eds.). Handbook of psychological and educational assessment of children. Vol. 2. Personality, behavior and context. New York: Guilford, 1989.Google Scholar
  48. Goldstein, F., Rollins, H., Jay, R., & Miller, S. Temperament and cognitive style in school age children. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 1986, 32, 263–273.Google Scholar
  49. Gordon, B. Maternal perception of child temperament and observed mother-child interaction. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 1983, 13, 153–167.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Guerin, D., & Gottfried, A. Correlations of temperament from infancy through eight years. Paper presented at the International Conference on Infant Studies. Washington, DC, April, 1988.Google Scholar
  51. Gunn, P., & Berry, P. Down syndrome temperament and maternal response to description of child behavior. Developmental Psychology, 1985, 21, 842–847.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Heffernan, L., Black, W., & Poche, P. Temperament patterns in young neurologically impaired children. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 1982, 7, 415–423.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Hegvik, R., McDevitt, S., & Carey, W. The Middle Childhood Temperament Questionnaire. Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 1982, 3, 197–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Hsu, C., Soong, W., Stigler, J., Hong, C., & Liang, C. The temperamental characteristics of Chinese babies. Child Development, 1981, 52, 1337–1340.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Hubert, N.C. Parental attributions regarding their young children’s temperamental easiness/ difficult-ness. Paper presented at the meeting of the Society for Research in Child Development. Kansas City, April, 1989a.Google Scholar
  56. Hubert, N.C. Parental reactions to perceived temperament behaviors in their 6 and 24 month old children. Infant Behavior and Development, 1989b, 12, 185–198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Hubert, N.C., & Wachs, T.D. Parental perceptions of the behavioral components of infant easi-ness/difficultness. Child Development, 1985, 56, 1525–1537.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Hubert, N.C., Wachs, T.D., Peters-Martin, P., & Gandour, M.J. The study of early temperament: Measurement and conceptual issues. Child Development, 1982, 53, 571–600.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Huitt, W., Ashton, P. Parent’s perception of infant temperament: A psychometric study. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 1982, 28, 95–109.Google Scholar
  60. Isabella, R., Ward, M., & Belsky, J. Convergence of multiple sources of information on infant individuality: Neonatal behavior, infant behavior, and temperament reports. Infant Behavior and Development, 1985, 8, 283–291.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Kagan, M. J. Psychological research on the human infant. New York: Grant Foundation, 1982.Google Scholar
  62. Klein, H. The relationship between children’s temperament and adjustment to kindergarten and Head Start settings. Journal of Psychology, 1982, 112, 259–268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Klein, P. Behavior of Israeli mothers toward infants in relation to infants’ perceived temperament. Child Development, 1984, 55, 1212–1218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Korner, A., Kraemer, H., Reade, E., Forrest, T., Dimiceli, S., & Thorn, V. A methodological approach to developing an assessment procedure for testing the neurobehavioral maturity of pre term infants. Child Development, 1987, 68, 1478–1487.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Korner, A., Zeanah, C., Linden, J., Berkowitz, R., Kraemer, H., & Agras, W. The relation between neonatal and later activity and temperament. Child Development, 1985, 56, 38–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Lee, C., & Bates, J. Mother-child interaction of age two years and perceived difficult temperament. Child Development, 1985, 56, 1314–1325.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Lerner, J.V. The role of temperament in psychological adaptation in early adolescents: A test of a “goodness of fit” model. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 1983, 143, 149–157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Lerner, J.V. The impact of temperament for psychosocial functioning: Tests of a “goodness of fit” model. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 1984, 30, 177–188.Google Scholar
  69. Lerner, J.V., & Galambos, N. Maternal role satisfaction, mother-child interaction, and child temperament: A process model. Developmental Psychology, 1985, 21, 1157–1164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Lerner, J.V., Lerner, R.M., & Zabski, S. Temperament and elementary school children’s actual and rated academic performance: A test of a “goodness-of-fit” model. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 1985, 26, 125–136.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Lounsbury, M., & Bates, J. The cries of infants of differing levels of perceived temperamental difficult-ness: Acoustic properties and effects on listeners. Child Development, 1982, 53, 677–686.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Martin, R.P. The Temperament Assessment Battery manual. University of Georgia. Athens, GA, 1984.Google Scholar
  73. Martin, R.P., Wisenbaker, J., Mathews-Morgan, J., Holbrook, J., Hooper, S., & Spalding, F. Stability of teacher temperament ratings over 6 and 12 months. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 1986, 14, 167–179.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Matheny, A.P. Jr., Wilson, R., & Nuss, S. Toddler temperament: Stability across settings and over ages. Child Development, 1984, 55, 1200–1211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Matheny, A.P. Jr., Wilson, R., Thoben, A. Home and mother: Relation with infant temperament. Developmental Psychology, 1987, 21, 486–494.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Maziade, M., Cote, R., Boudreault, M., Thivierge, J., & Boutin, P. Family correlates of temperament continuity and change across middle childhood. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 1986, 56, 195–203.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Maziade, M., Cote, R., Boudreault, M., Thivierge, J., & Caperaa, P. The New York Longitudinal Study’s Model of Temperament: Gender differences in demographic correlates in a French-speaking population. Journal of American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 1984, 233, 582–587.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Maziade, M., Caperaa, P., Laplante, B., Boudreault, H., Thivierge, J., Cote, R., & Boutin, P. Value of difficult temperament among 7 year-olds in the general population for predicting psychiatric diagnosis at age 12. American Journal of Psychiatry, 1985, 142, 943–946.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Mebert, C. Stability and change in parent perception of infant temperament: Early pregnancy to 13.5 months postpartum. Infant Behavior and Development, 1989, 12, 237–244. Paper presented at the International Conference on Infant Studies. Washington, DC, April, 1988.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Mevarech, Z. The relationships between temperament characteristics, intelligence, task-engagement, and mathematics achievement. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 1985, 55, 156–163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Olson, S., Bates, J., & Bayles, K. Maternal perceptions of infant toddler behavior: A longitudinal, construct validation study. Infant Behavior and Development, 1982, 5, 397–410.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Paget, K., Nagle, R., & Martin, R. Interrelationships between temperament characteristics and first-grade teacher-student interactions. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 1984, 12, 547–560.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Palisin, H. Preschool temperament and performance on achievement tests. Developmental Psychology, 1986, 12, 766–770.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Paulhus, D.L. Self-deception and impression management in test responses. In A. Angleitner & J.S. Wiggins (Eds.). Personality assessment via questionnaires. Current issues in theory and measurement. Berlin: Springer, 1986.Google Scholar
  85. Persson-Blennow, I., & McNeil, T. Factor analysis of temperament characteristics in children at 6 months, 1 year, and 2 years of age. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 1982, 52, 51–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Peters-Martin, P., & Wachs, T.D. A longitudinal study of temperament with its correlates in the first 12 months. Infant Behavior and Development, 1984, 7, 285–298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Pettit, G., & Bates, J. Continuity of individual differences in the mother-infant relationship from six to thirteen months. Child Development, 1984, 55, 729–739.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Plomin, R., & Daniels, D. The interaction between temperament and environment: Methodological considerations. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 1984, 30, 1449–162.Google Scholar
  89. Prior, M., Kyrios, M., & Oberklaid, F. Temperament in Australia, American, Chinese, and Greek infants. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 1986, 17, 455–474.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Pullis, M. LD students’ temperament characteristics and their impact on decisions by resource and mainstream teachers. Learning Disability Quarterly, 1985, 8, 109–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Rieser-Danner, L. Measures of infant temperament: A convergent validity study. Paper presented at the International Conference on Infant Studies. Los Angeles, April, 1986.Google Scholar
  92. Ross, G. Temperament of preterm infants: Its relationship to perinatal factors and one-year outcome. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 1987, 8, 106–110.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Roth, K., Einsenberg, N., & Seu, E. The relation of preterms and full term infants’ temperament to test-taking behaviors and developmental status. Infant Behavior and Development, 1984, 7, 495–505.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Rothbart, M.K. Longitudinal observation of infant temperament. Developmental Psychology, 1986a, 22, 356–365.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Rothbart, M.K. A psychobiological approach to the study of temperament. In G.A. Kohnstamm (Ed.). Temperament discussed. Lisse: S wets & Zeitlinger, 1986b.Google Scholar
  96. Rothbart, M.K. Temperament and the development of inhibited approach. Child Development, 1988, 59, 1241–1250.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Rothbart, M.K., & Goldsmith, H.H. Three approaches to the study of infant temperament. Developmental Review, 1985, 5, 237–250.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Rushton, P., Brainerd, C., Pressley, M. Behavioral development and construct validity: The principle of aggregation. Psychological Bulletin, 1983, 94, 18–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Sameroff, A., & Chandler, M. Reproductive risk and the continuum of caretaking casuality. In F. Horowitz (Ed.). Review of child development research IV. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1975.Google Scholar
  100. Sameroff, A.J., Seifer, R., & Elias, P.K. Sociocultural variability in infant temperament ratings. Child Development, 1982, 53, 564–578.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Sanson, A., Prior, M., Garino, E., Oberklaid, F., & Sewell, J. The structure of infant temperament: Factor analysis of the Revised Infant Temperament Questionnaire. Infant Behavior and Development, 1987, 10, 97–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Sanson, A., Prior, M., & Oberklaid, F. Normative data on temperament in Australian infants. Australian Journal of Psychology, 1985, 37, 185–195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Simonds, J., & Simonds, M. Nursery school children’s temperament related to sex birth position and socioeconomic status. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 1982, 7, 49–59.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Simonds, M., & Simonds, J. Relationship of maternal parenting behaviors to preschool children’s temperament. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 1981, 12, 19–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Simons, C., McCluskey, K., & Mullett, M. Interpersonal ratings of temperament for high and low risk infants. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 1985, 15, 167–179.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Sirignano, S., & Lachman, M. Personality change during the transition to parenthood: The role of perceived infant temperament. Developmental Psychology, 1985, 21, 558–567.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Skarpness, C., & Carson, D. Temperament, communicative competence. The psychological adjustment of kindergarten children. Psychology Reports, 1986, 59, 1299–1308.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. St. James-Roberts, I., & Wolke, D. Comparison of mothers’ with trained observers’ reports of neonatal behavior style. Infant Behavior and Development, 1984, 7, 299–310.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Strelau, J. The concept of temperament in personality research. European Journal of Personality, 1987, 1, 107–117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Sutton, D., Bell, M., Luebering, A., & Aaron, N. Laboratory and maternal report measures of temperament and their relationship to heart rate variability. Paper presented at the International Conference on Infant Studies. Washington, DC, April, 1988.Google Scholar
  111. Thomas, A., & Chess, S. Temperament and development. New York: Brunner/Mazel, 1977.Google Scholar
  112. Thomas, A., Chess, S., & Birch, H. Temperament and behavior disorders in children. New York: New York University Press, 1968.Google Scholar
  113. Thompson, R.A., Connell, J. & Bridges, L. Temperament, emotion and social interactive behavior in the strange situation: A component process analysis of attachment system function. Child Development, 1988, 59, 1102–1110.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Thompson, R., & Lamb, M. Stranger sociability and its relationship to temperament and social experience during the second year. Infant Behavior and Development, 1982, 5, 277–287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Vaughn, B. Maternal personality variables measured prenatally predict perception of infant temperament. Paper presented at the biannual meeting of the Society for Research in Child Development. Detroit, April, 1983.Google Scholar
  116. Wachs, T.D. Short-term stability of aggregated and nonaggregated measures of parental behavior. Child Development, 1987, 58, 796–797.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Wachs, T.D. Relevance of physical environment influences for toddler temperament. Infant Behavior and Development, 1988, 11, 431–446.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Wachs, T.D., & Gandour, M.J. Temperament, environment, and six-month cognitive-intellectual development: A test of the organismic specifity hypothesis. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 1983, 6, 135–152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Wachs, T.D., Morrow, J., & Slabach, E. Intra-individual variability in infant visual recognition performance: Temperamental and environmental correlates. Infant Behavior and Development, 1990, 13, 401–407.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Wachs, T.D., & Smitherman, C.H. Infant temperament and subject loss in an habituation procedure. Child Development, 1985, 56, 861–867.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Washington, J., Minde, K., & Goldberg, S. Temperament in pre-term infants. Journal of American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 1986, 25, 493–502.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Weissbluth, M. Sleep duration and infant temperament. Journal of Pediatrics, 1981, 99, 817–819.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Weissbluth, M., Hunt, C., Brouillette, R., Hanson, D., David, R., & Stein, I. Respiratory patterns during sleep and temperament ratings in normal infants. Journal of Pediatrics, 1985, 106, 688–690.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Wenckstern, S., Weizman, F., & Leenars, A. Temperament and tempo of play in eight month old infants. Child Development, 1984, 55, 1195–1199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Wertlieb, D., Weigel, C., Springer, T, & Feldstein, M. Temperament as a moderator of children’s stressful experiences. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 1987, 57, 234–245.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Windle, M. Psychometric strategies of measures of temperament: A methodological critique. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 1988, 11, 171–201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Windle, M., Hooker, K., Lenerz, K., East, P.L., Lerner, J.V., & Lerner, R.M. Temperament, perceived competence, and depression in early-and late-adolescents. Developmental Psychology, 1986, 22, 384–392.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Windle, M., & Lerner, R.M. Reassessing the dimensions of temperamental individuality across the life-span: The Revised Dimensions of Temperament Survey (DOTS-R). Journal of Adolescent Research, 1986, 1, 213–230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Wolfson, J., Fields, J., & Rose, S. Symptoms, temperament, resiliency, and control in anxiety-disordered preschool children. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 1987, 26, 16–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Worobey, J., & Blajda, V.M. Temperamental ratings at 2 weeks, 2 months, and 1 year: Differential stability of activity and emotionality. Developmental Psychology, 1989, 25, 257–263.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Worobey, J., & Butler, J. Memory learning and temperament in early infancy. Paper preseted at the International Conference on Infant Studies. Washington, DC, April, 1988.Google Scholar
  132. Zenah, C., Keener, M., & Anders, T. Developing perceptions of temperament and their relation to mother and infant behavior. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 1986, 27, 499–512.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • Elizabeth H. Slabach
    • 1
  • Judy Morrow
    • 1
  • Theodore D. Wachs
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Psychological SciencesPurdue UniversityWest LafayetteUSA

Personalised recommendations