Pain Management

  • Jeffrey J. Dolce
  • Patricia C. Dickerson
Part of the Applied Clinical Psychology book series (NSSB)

Abstract

Physical functioning and health often decrease in old age. Approximately 80% of those 65 years or older suffer from one or more chronic illnesses (Bonica, 1980; Lewis, 1984). Decline in functioning occurs in musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, pulmonary, gastrointestinal, urinary, and nervous systems. Many of these changes can be related to pain, discomfort, and functional limitations. Illnesses such as arthritic disorders, osteoporosis, neuralgias, and cancer are all common problems among the elderly that may be associated with pain (Butler & Gastel, 1980; Rowe & Besdine, 1982). Bone fractures due to falls, frequently encountered among the elderly, may also be accompanied by pain (Rubenstein & Robbins, 1984). Although pain is one of the most common complaints of the elderly (Crook, Rideout, & Browne, 1984; Haley, 1983), it is important to note that pain and discomfort are not an inevitable consequence of aging.

Keywords

Chronic Pain Pain Management Herpes Zoster Pain Patient Behavioral Medicine 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Achterberg-Lawlis, J. (1982). The psychological dimensions of arthritis. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 50, 984–992.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Averill, J. R. (1973). Personal control over aversive stimuli and its relationship to stress. Psychological Bulletin, 80, 286–303.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bahrke, M. S., & Morgan, W. P. (1978). Anxiety reduction following exercise and meditation. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 2, 323–337.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bandura, A. (1982). Self-efficacy mechanism in human agency American Psychologist, 37, 122–147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Beck, A. T., Rush, A. J., Shaw, B. F., & Emery, G. (1979). Cognitive therapy of depression. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  6. Berlinger, W. G., & Spector, R. (1984). Adverse drug reactions in the elderly. Geriatrics, 39, 45–58.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Berntzen, D., & Gotestam, G. (1987). Effects of on-demand versus fixed-interval schedules in the treatment of chronic pain with analgesic compounds. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 55, 213–217.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Black, R. G. (1975). The chronic pain syndrome. Surgical Clinics of North America, 55, 999–1011.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Blumenthal, J. A., Williams, R. S., & Needels, T. L. (1982). Psychological changes accompany aerobic exercise in healthy middle-aged adults. Psychosomatic Medicine, 44, 529–536.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Bonica, J. J. (1980). Pain research and therapy: Past and current status, and future needs. In L. Nge & J. J. Bonica (Eds.), Pain, discomfort, and humanitarian care (pp. 1–46). New York: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  11. Brooks, P. M., Kean, W. F., Kassam, Y., & Buchanan, W. W. (1984). Problems of antiarthritic therapy in the elderly. Journal of the American Geriatric Society, 32, 229–234.Google Scholar
  12. Brown, R., Ramirez, D. E., & Taub, J. M. (1978). The prescription for exercise for depression. Sports-medicine, 6, 34–45.Google Scholar
  13. Butler, R. N., & Gastel, B. (1980). Care of the aged. In L. Nge & J. J. Bonica (Eds.), Pain, discomfort, and humanitarian care (pp. 297–311). New York: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  14. Butler, S. (1984). Present status of tricyclic antidepressants in chronic pain therapy. In C. Benedetti, C. R. Chapman, & G. Moricca (Eds.), Advances in pain research and therapy (pp. 173–197). New York: Raven Press.Google Scholar
  15. Cairns, D., & Pasino, J. A. (1977). Comparison of verbal reinforcement and feedback in the operant treatment of disability due to chronic low back pain. Behavior Therapy, 8, 621–630.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Carron, H. (1984). Rational management of cancer pain. Urban Health, 5, 36–38.Google Scholar
  17. Clee, M. D., Smith, N., McNeil, G. P., & Wright, D. S. (1979). Dysrhythmias in apparently healthy elderly subjects. Age and Aging, 8, 173–176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Crook, J., Rideout, E., & Browne, G. (1984). The prevalence of pain complaints in a general population. Pain, 18, 199–314.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Crue, B. L. (1983a). The peripheralist and centralist views of chronic pain. Seminars in Neurology, 3, 331–339.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Crue, B. L. (1983b). The neurophysiology and taxonomy of pain. In S. F. Brena & S. L. Chapman (Eds.), Management of patients with chronic pain (pp. 21–31). New York: Spectrum.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Daut, R. L., & Cleeland, C. S. (1982). The prevalence and severity of pain in cancer. Cancer, 50, 1913–1918.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Demoragas, J. M., & Kierland, R. R. (1957). The outcome of patients with herpes zoster. Archives of Dermatology, 75, 193–196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Dishman, R. K. (1982). Compliance/adherence in health-related exercise. Health Psychology, 1, 237–267.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Dishman, R. K. (1985). Medical psychology in exercise and sports. Medical Clinics of North America, 69, 123–143.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Dolce, J. J. (1987). Self-efficacy and disability beliefs in behavioral treatment of pain: A perspective. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 25, 289–299.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Doleys, D. M., Crocker, M. F., & Patton, D. (1982). Response of patients with chronic pain to exercise quotas. Physical Therapy, 62, 1111–1114.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Dolce, J. J., & Raczynski, J. M. (1985). Neuromuscular activity and electromyography in painful backs: Psychological and biomechanical models in assessment and treatment. Psychological Bulletin, 97, 502–520.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Dolce, J. J., Crocker, M. F., & Doleys, D. M. (1986a). Prediction of outcome among chronic pain patients. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 24, 313–319.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Dolce, J. J., Crocker, M. F., Moletteire, C., & Doleys, D. M. (1986b). Exercise quotas, anticipatory concern, and self-efficacy expectancies in chronic pain: A preliminary report. Pain, 24, 365–372.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Dolce, J. J., Doleys, D. M., Raczynski, J. M., Lossie, J., Poole, L., & Smith, M. (1986c). The role of efficacy expectancies in the prediction of pain tolerance. Pain, 27, 261–272.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Doliber, C. M. (1984). Role of the physical therapist at pain treatment centers. Physical Therapy, 64, 905–909.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Ehrlich, G. E. (1982). Diagnosis and management of rheumatic diseases in older patients. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 30 (Suppl. 11), 545–551.Google Scholar
  33. Evans, P. J. D. (1981). Narcotic addiction in patients with chronic pain. Anaesthesia, 36, 597–602.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Fitzgerald, P. L. (1985). Exercise for the elderly. Medical Clinics of North America, 69, 189–196.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Folkins, C. H., Lynch, S., & Gardner, M. M. (1972). Psychological fitness as a function of physical fitness. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 53, 503–508.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Follick, M. J., Ahern, D. K., & Aberger, E. W. (1987). Behavioral treatment of chronic pain in applications. In J. Blumenthal & D. C. Mckee (Eds.), Behavioral medicine and health psychology: A clinician’s source book (pp. 237–270). Sarasota, FL: Professional Resource Exchange.Google Scholar
  37. Fordyce, W. E. (1970). Operant conditioning as treatment method in management of selected chronic pain problems. Northwest Medicine, 8, 580–581.Google Scholar
  38. Fordyce, W. E. (1976). Behavioral methods for chronic pain and illness. St. Louis: Mosby.Google Scholar
  39. Fordyce, W. E. (1978). Evaluating and managing chronic pain. Geriatrics, 31, 59–62.Google Scholar
  40. Fordyce, W. E., Fowler, R. S., Lehman, J. F., DeLateur, B. J., Sand, P. L., & Treischmann, R. B. (1973). Operant conditioning in the treatment of chronic pain. Archives of Physical and Rehabilitative Medicine, 54, 399–108.Google Scholar
  41. Fordyce, W. E., Shelton, J. L., & Dundore, D. E. (1982). The modification of avoidance learning pain behaviors. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 5, 405–415.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Freemoon, F. R. (1978). Evaluation and treatment of headache. Geriatrics, 33, 82–85.Google Scholar
  43. Gauthier, J. G., Cote, A., & Drolet, M.(1985). Perceived self-efficacy as a psychological mediator of migraine headache improvement following blood volume pulse biofeedback. Paper presented at the meeting of the Society for Behavioral Medicine, New Orleans, Louisiana.Google Scholar
  44. Gilliland, B. C., & Mannick, M. (1973). Rheumatoid arthritis. In R. G. Petersdorf, R. D. Adams, E. Braunwald, K. J. Isselbacher, J. B. Martin, & J. D. Wilson (Eds.), Harrison’s principles of internal medicine (pp. 1977–1984). New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  45. Gurland, B. J., & Cross, P. S. (1982). Epidemiology of psychopathology in old age. Psychiatric Clinics in North America, 5, 11–26.Google Scholar
  46. Haley, W. E. (1983). Priorities for behavioral intervention with nursing home residents: Nursing staffs perspective. International Journal of Behavioral Geriatrics, 1, 47–51.Google Scholar
  47. Haley, W. E., & Dolce, J. J. (1986). Assessment and management of chronic pain in the elderly Clinical Gerontologist, 5, 435–455.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Harkins, S. W., & Chapman, C. R. (1976). Detection and decision factors in pain perception in young and elderly men. Pain, 2, 253–264.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Harkins, S. W., & Chapman, C. R. (1977). The perception of inducing dental pain in young and elderly women. Journal of Gerontology, 32, 428–435.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Harkins, S. W., Kwentus, J., & Price, D. D. (1984). Pain and the elderly. In C. Bennetti, C. R. Chapman, & G. Moricca (Eds.), Advances in pain research and therapy, (pp. 147–172). New York: Raven Press.Google Scholar
  51. Harkins, S. W., Price, D. D., & Martelli, M. (1986). Effects of age on pain perception: Thermociception. Journal of Gerontology, 41, 58–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Hilgard, E. K., & Hilgard, J. K. (1975). Hypnosis in the relief of pain. Los Altos, CA: William Kaufman.Google Scholar
  53. Holroyd, K. A., Penzien, D. B., Hursey, K. G., Tobin, D. L., Rogers, L., Holm, J. E., Marcille, P. J., Hall, J. R., & Chila, A. G. (1984). Change mechanism in EMG biofeedback training. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 52, 1039–1053.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Home, J. A. (1981). The effects of exercise upon sleep: A critical review. Psychology, 12, 241–290.Google Scholar
  55. Iversen, S. D., & Iversen, L. L. (1981). Behavioral pharmacology (2nd ed.). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  56. Kaiko, R. F., Wallenstein, S. L., Rogers, A. G., Brabinski, P. Y., & Houda, R. W. (1982). Narcotics in the elderly. Mental Clinics of North America, 66, 1079–1089.Google Scholar
  57. Katon, W., & Kleinman, A. (1982). Depression and somatization: A review. Part I. American Journal of Medicine, 72, 127–135.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Keefe, F. J. (1982). Behavioral assessment and treatment of chronic pain: Current status and future directions. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 50, 896–911.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Khatami, M., Woody, G., & O’Brien, C. (1979). Chronic pain and narcotic addiction: A multitherapeutic approach. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 20, 55–60PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Klepac, R. K., Dowling, J., & Hauge, G. (1982). Characteristics of clients seeking therapy for the reduction of dental avoidance reactions to pain. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 13, 293–300.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Kores, R., Murphy, W. D., Rosenthal, T., Elias, D., & Rosenthal, R. (1985). A self-efficacy scale to predict outcome in chronic pain treatment: Preliminary results. Paper presented at the meeting of the Society for Behavioral Medicine, New Orleans, LA.Google Scholar
  62. Krane, S. M., & Holick, M. F. (1983). Metabolic bone disease. In R. G. Petersdorf, R. D. Adams, E. Braunwald, K. J. Isselbacher, J. B. Martin, & J. D. Wilson (Eds.), Harrisons principles of internal medicine (pp. 1949–1954). New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  63. Krause, H. (1965). Backache, stress and tension: Cause, prevention and treatment. New York: Simon and Schuster.Google Scholar
  64. Lane, J. M., Vigorita, V. J., & Falls, M. (1984). Osteoporosis: Current diagnosis and treatment. Geriatrics, 39, 40–47.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Lewis, C. B. (1984). Rehabilitation of the older person: A psychosocial focus. Physical Therapy, 64, 517–521.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Loeser, J. D. (1980). Perspectives on pain. Proceedings of the first world conference on clinical pharmacology and therapeutics (pp. 313–316). London: MacMillan.Google Scholar
  67. Lukert, B. P. (1982). Osteoporosis—A review and update. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 63, 480–487.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Manning, M. M., & Wright, T. L. (1983). Self-efficacy expectancies, outcome expectancies, and the persistence of pain control in childbirth. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 45, 421–431.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Martinez-Urrutia, A. (1975). Anxiety and pain in surgical patients. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 43, 437–442.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Maruta, T., Swanson, D. W., & Finlayson, R. E. (1978). Drug abuse and dependency in patients with chronic pain. Mayo Clinic Proceedings, 54, 241–244.Google Scholar
  71. McCaul, K. D., & Malott, J. M. (1984). Distraction and coping with pain. Psychological Bulletin, 95, 516–533.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. McDonald, J. B., Baillie, J., Williams, B. O., & Ballantyne, D. (1983). Coronary care in the elderly Age and Aging, 12, 17–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. McGivney, W. T., & Crooks, G. M. (1984). The care of patients with severe chronic pain in terminal illness. Journal of the American Medical Association, 251, 1182–1188.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. McNairy, S. L., Maruta, T., Ivnik, R. J., Swanson, D. W., & Ilstrup, D. (1984). Prescription medication dependence and neurophysiological function. Pain, 18, 169–177.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Melzack, R., & Wall, P. D. (1983). The challenge of pain. Basic Books.Google Scholar
  76. Milby, J. B. (1981). Addictive behavior and its treatment. New York: Springer Publishing.Google Scholar
  77. Neufeld, R. W. J., & Thomas P. (1977). Effects of perceived efficacy of a prophylactic controlling mechanism on self-control under painful stimulation. Canadian Journal of Behavioral Science, 9, 224–232.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Payne, R., & Foley, K. M. (1984). Advances in the management of cancer pain. Cancer Treatment Reports, 68, 173–183.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Pfeiffer, R. F. (1982). Drugs for pain in the elderly. Geriatrics, 37, 67–76.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Portenoy, R. K. (1986). Postherpetic neuralgia: A workable treatment plan. Geriatrics, 41, 34–48.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Posner, C. M. (1976). The types of headache that affect the elderly. Geriatrics, 31, 103–106.Google Scholar
  82. Procacci, P., Bozza, G., Buzzelli, G., & Delia Corte, M. (1970). The cutaneous prickling pain threshold in old age. Gerontologia Clinica, 12, 213–218.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Redd, W. H. (1982). Behavioral analysis and control of psychosomatic symptoms of patients receiving intensive cancer treatment. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 21, 351–358.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Rimer, B., Jones, W., Wilson, C., Bennett, D., & Engstrom, P. (1983). Planning a cancer control program for older citizens. The Gerontologist, 23, 384–389.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Roberts, A. H. (1981). The behavioral treatment of chronic pain. In J. M. Ferguson & C. B. Taylor (Eds.), The comprehensive handbook of behavioral medicine (Vol. 2, pp. 172–197). New York: Spectrum Publications.Google Scholar
  86. Roesch, R., & Ulrich, D. E. (1980). Physical therapy management in the treatment of chronic pain. Physical Therapy, 60, 53–57.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Romano, J. M., & Turner, J. A. (1985). Chronic pain and depression: Does the evidence support a relationship? Psychological Bulletin, 97, 18–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Rowe, J. W., & Besdine, R. W. (Eds.). (1982). Health and disease in old age. Boston: Little, Brown.Google Scholar
  89. Rubenstein, L. Z., & Robbins, A. S. (1984). Falls in the elderly: A clinical perspective. Geriatrics, 39, 67–78.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Rybstein-Blinchik, E. (1979). Effects of different cognitive strategies on chronic pain experience. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 2, 93–101.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Sanders, S. H. (1983). Component analysis of a behavioral treatment program for chronic low back pain. Behavior Therapy, 14, 697–705.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Spanos, N. P., Radtke-Bodorik, H. L., Ferguson, J. D., & Jones, B. (1979). The effects of hypnotic susceptibility, suggestion for analgesia, and the utilization of cognitive strategies on the reduction of pain. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 88, 282–292.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Speilberger, C. D., Auerbach, S. M., Wadsworth, A. P., Dunn, T. M., & Taulbee, E. F. (1973). Emotional reactions to surgery. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 40, 33–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Spirduso, W. (1983). Exercise and the aging brain. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 54, 208–218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Sternbach, R. A. (1974). Pain patients: Traits and treatment. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  96. Sturgis, E. T., Dolce, J. J., & Dickerson, P. A. (1987). Pain management in the elderly. In L. L. Carstensen & B. A. Edelstein (Eds.), Handbook of clinical gerontology (pp. 190–203). New York: Pergamon Press.Google Scholar
  97. Swerdlow, M. (1973). Relieving pain in the terminally-ill. Geriatrics, 28, 100–103.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Taylor, C. B., Zlutnick, S. I., Corley, M. J., & Flora, J. (1980). The effects of detoxification, relaxation and brief supportive therapy on chronic pain. Pain, 8, 319–329.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Thompson, S. C. (1981). Will it hurt less if I can control it? A complex answer to a simple question. Psychological Bulletin, 90, 89–101.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Turk, D. C., & Rennert, K. (1981). Pain and the terminally ill cancer patient: A cognitive-social learning perspective. In H. J. Sobel (Ed.), Behavior therapy in terminal care: A humanistic approach (pp. 95–124). Cambridge, MA: Ballinger.Google Scholar
  101. Turk, D. C., Meichenbaum, D., & Genest, J. (1983). Pain and behavioral medicine: A cognitive behavioral perspective. New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  102. Turner, J. A., & Chapman, C. R. (1982). Psychological interventions for chronic pain: A critical review. I. Relaxation training and biofeedback. Pain, 12, 1–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Turner, J. A., Calsyn, D. A., Fordyce, W. E., & Ready, L. B. (1982). Drug utilization patterns in chronic pain patients. Pain, 12, 367–363.Google Scholar
  104. Varni, J. W. (1981). Self-regulation techniques in the management of chronic arthritic pain in hemophilia. Behavior Therapy, 12, 185–194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Weisenberg, M. (1977). Pain and pain control. Psychological Bulletin, 84, 1008–1044.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Wigley, F. M. (1984). Osteoarthritis: Practical management in older patients. Geriatrics, 39, 101–120.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Wittig, R. M., Zorick, F. J., Blumer, D., Heilbronn, M., & Roth, T. (1982). Disturbed sleep in patients complaining of chronic pain. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 170, 429–431.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Wolf, S. L., Nacht, M., & Kelly, J. L. (1982). EMG feedback training during dynamic movement for low back pain patients. Behavior Therapy, 13, 395–406.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Ziesat, H. A., Angle, H. V., Gentry, W. D., & Ellinwood, E. H. (1979). Drug use and misuse in operant pain patients. Addictive Behaviors, 4, 263–266.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jeffrey J. Dolce
    • 1
  • Patricia C. Dickerson
    • 1
  1. 1.Behavioral Medicine Unit, Division of General and Preventive MedicineUniversity of Alabama at BirminghamBirminghamUSA

Personalised recommendations