Advertisement

Behavioral Assessment and Treatment of Depression in Older Adults

  • Linda Teri
Part of the Applied Clinical Psychology book series (NSSB)

Abstract

This chapter will provide an overview of the literature on behavioral assessment and treatment of depression in older adults. It will begin with a discussion of generally accepted and well-established definitions of depression and the behavioral theory of depression development and maintenance. It will then survey the available methods for assessing depression in older adults, discuss strategies for intervention, and conclude with a case presentation illustrating the behavioral treatment of a depressed older adult.

Keywords

Beck Depression Inventory Major Depressive Disorder Behavioral Assessment Negative Cognition Depressive Behavior 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. American Psychiatric Association. (1980). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (3rd ed., revised). Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  2. Bandura, A. (1977). Social learning theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  3. Beck, A. T., & Greenberg, R. (1974). Coping with depression. Philadelphia: Center for Cognitive Therapy.Google Scholar
  4. Beck, A. T., Ward, C. H., Mendelson, M., Mock, J., & Erbaugh, J. (1961). An inventory for measuring depression. Archives of General Psychiatry, 4, 561–571.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Blumenthal, M. (1975). Measuring depressive symptomatology in a general population. Archives of General Psychiatry, 32, 971–978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Brink, T. L., Yesavage, J. A., Lum, O., Heersema, P., Adey, M., & Rose, T. L. (1982). Screening tests for geriatric depression. Clinical Gerontologist, 1, 37–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Dahlstrom, W. G., Welsh, G. S., & Dahlstrom, L. E. (1975). An MMPI handbook. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  8. Dessonville, C., Gallagher, D., Thompson, L. W., Finnell, K., & Lewinsohn, P. M. (1982). Relation of age and health status of depressive symptoms in normal and depressed adults. Essence, 5, 99–117.Google Scholar
  9. Endicott, J. E., & Spitzer, R. L. (1978). A diagnostic interview, the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry, 35, 837–844.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Fillenbaum, G.G. (1978). Validity and reliability of multi-dimensional functional assessment questionnaire. In Multi-dimensional functional assessment: The OARS methodology. Durham, NC: Duke University.Google Scholar
  11. Fillenbaum, G. G., & Pfeiffer, E. (1976). The mini-mult: A cautionary note. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 44, 698–703.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Gallagher, D. (1981). Behavioral group therapy with elderly depressives: An experimental study. In D. Upper & S. Ross (Eds.), Behavioral group therapy (Vol 3, pp. 187–224). Champaign, IL: Research Press.Google Scholar
  13. Gallagher, D., & Thompson, L. W. (1983). Depression. In P. M. Lewinsohn & L. Teri (Eds.), Clinical geropsychology (pp. 7–37). Elmsford NY: Pergamon Press.Google Scholar
  14. Gallagher, D., McGarvey, W., Zelinski, W., & Thompson, L. W. (1978). Age as a factor structure of the Zung Depression Scale. Paper presented at the 31st annual meeting of the Gerontological Society. Dallas, TX.Google Scholar
  15. Gallagher, D., Thompson, L., Baffa, G., Piatt, C., Ringering, L., & Stone, V. (1981). Depression in the elderly: A behavioral treatment manual. Los Angeles: University of Southern California.Google Scholar
  16. Gallagher, D., Nies, G., & Thompson, L. (1982). Reliability of the Beck Depression Inventory with older adults. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 50, 152–153.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Gallagher, D., Slife, B., Rose, T., & Okarma, T. (1982). Psychological correlates of immunologic disease in older adults. Clinical Gerontologist, 1, 51–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Gallagher, D., Breckenridge, J., Steinmetz, J., & Thompson, L. W. (1983). The Beck Depression Inventory and Research Diagnostic Criteria: Congruence in an older population. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 51, 933–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Gurel, L., Linn, M. W., & Linn, B. S. (1972). Physical and mental impairment of function evaluation in the aged: The PAMIE Scale. Journal of Gerontology, 27, 83–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Gurland, B., & Kuriansky, J., Sharpe, L., Simon, R., Stiller, P., & Birkett, P. (1977). The Comprehensive Assessment and Referral Evaluation (CARE), rationale, development and reliability, International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 8, 9–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Hamilton, M. (1967). Development of a rating scale for primary depressive illness. British Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 6, 278–296.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Harmatz, J. S., & Shader, R. I. (1975). Psychopharmacologic investigation in healthy elderly volunteers: MMPI Depression Scale. Journal of the American Geriatric Society, 23, 350–354.Google Scholar
  23. Hedlund, B., & Gilewski, M. (1980). Development of pleasant and unpleasant events schedules for older adults: A validation study of short forms for use with elderly individuals. Unpublished paper, University of Southern California, Los AngelesGoogle Scholar
  24. Lacobson, E. (1938). Progressive relaxation. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  25. Kincannon, J. C. (1968). Prediction of the standard MMPI scale score from 71 items: The mini-mult. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 32, 319–25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Lawton, M. P. (1979). Clinical geropsychology. Problems and prospects. Master Lectures on the Psychology of Aging. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  27. Lawton, M. P., Moss, M., Fulcomer, M., & Kleban, M. H. (1982). A research and service-oriented multilevel assessment instrument. Journal of Gerontology, 37, 91–99.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Leon, G. R., Kamp, J., Gillum, R., & Gillum, B. (1981). Life stress and dimension of functioning in old age. Journal of Gerontology, 36, 66–69.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Lewinsohn, P. M., & Lee, W. M. L. (1981). Assessment of affective disorders. In D. H. Barlow (Ed.), Behavioral assessment of adult disorders (pp. 129–170). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  30. Lewinsohn, P., Teri, L., & Wasserman, D. (1982). Behavioral treatment of depression. In M. Hersen (Ed.), Outpatient behavior therapy: A clinical guide (pp. 81–108). New York: Grune & Stratton.Google Scholar
  31. Lewinsohn, P. M., Antonuccio, D. O., Steinmetz, J. L., & Teri, L. (1984). The coping with depression course. Eugene, OR: Castalia Publishing.Google Scholar
  32. Lewinsohn, P. M., Mermelstein, R. M., Alexander, C., & MacPhillamy, D. J. (1985a). The Unpleasant Events Schedule: A scale for the measurement of aversive events. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 41, 483–498.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Lewinsohn, P., Teri, L., Hoberman, H., & Hautzinger, M. (1985b). An integrative theory of depression. In S. Reiss & R. Bootzin (Eds.), Theoretical issues in behavior therapy (pp. 331–359). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  34. MacPhillamy, D. J., & Lewinsohn, P. M. (1982). The pleasant events schedule: Studies on reliability, validity, and scale intercorrelation. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 50, 363–380.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Murkofsky, C., Conte, H. R., Plutchik, R., & Karasu, T. B. (1978). Clinical utility of a rapid diagnosis test series for elderly psychiatric outpatients. Journal of American Geriatric Society, 26, 22–26.Google Scholar
  36. Radloff, L. W. (1977). The CES-D scale: A self-report depression scale for research in the general population. Applied Psychological Measurement, 1, 385–401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Radloff, L. W., & Teri, L. (1986). Assessing depression in older adults: The CES-D scale. Clinical Gerontologist, 5, 119–137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Rapp, S., & Jarrett, R. B. (1984). Depression and pleasant events in the elderly: The relationship of frequency, enjoyability, availability, and ability. Paper presented at the 18th annual meeting of the Association for the Advancement of Behavior Therapy, Philadelphia, PA.Google Scholar
  39. Rehm, L. P., & Kornblith, S. J. (1979). Behavior therapy for depression: A review of recent developments. In M. Hersen, R. M. Eisler, & P. M. Miller (Eds.), Progress in behavior modification (pp. 277–318). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  40. Reifler, B. V., Larson, E., & Teri, L. (1987). An outpatient geriatric psychiatry assessment and treatment service. Clinics in Geriatric Medicine, 3, 203–209.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Salzman, C., & Shader, R. I. (1979). Clinical evaluation of depression in the elderly. In A. Raskin & L. F. Jarvik (Eds.), Psychiatric symptoms and cognitive loss in the elderly (pp. 39–72). Washington, DC: Hemisphere.Google Scholar
  42. Sarteschi, P., Cassano, G., Castrogiovanni, P., & Conti, L. (1973). Use of rating-scales for computer analysis of affective symptoms in older age. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 14, 371–379.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Schnurr, R., Hoaken, P. C. S., & Jarrett, F. J. (1976). Comparison of depression inventories in a clinical population. Canadian Journal of Psychology, 21, 473–476.Google Scholar
  44. Shader, R. I., Harmatz, J. S., & Salzman, C. (1974). A new scale for clinical assessment in geriatric populations: Sandoz Clinical Assessment—Geriatric (SCAG). Journal of the American Geriatric Society, 22, 107–113.Google Scholar
  45. Spitzer, R. L., Endicott, J., & Robins, E. (1978). Research diagnostic criteria: Rationale and reliability. Archives of General Psychiatry, 35, 773–782.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Steinmetz, J. L., Zeiss, A. M., & Thompson, L. W. (1983). The life satisfaction course: An intervention for the elderly. San Francisco: NIMH Conference.Google Scholar
  47. Steinmetz, J. L., Thompson, L. W., Breckenridge, J. N., & Gallagher, D. (1984). Behavioral group therapy with the elderly. In D. Upper & S. Ross (Eds.), Handbook of behavioral group therapy (pp. 275–299). New York: Plenum.Google Scholar
  48. Swenson, W. (1961). Structured personality testing in the aged: An MMPI study of the gerontological population. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 17, 302–304.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Teri, L. (1985). Depression in dementia patients. Paper presented to the Society of Behavioral Medicine, New Orleans.Google Scholar
  50. Teri, L., & Keller, L. (1987). Multimodal assessment of the cognitively impaired older adult. In E. Borgatta (Ed.), Alzheimer’s caregivers: Strategies for support (pp. 40–64). Seattle: University of Washington Press.Google Scholar
  51. Teri, L., & Lewinsohn, P. M. (1982). Modification of the pleasant and unpleasant events schedules for use with the elderly. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 50, 444–445.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Teri, L., & Lewinsohn, P. M. (1986). Individual and group treatment of unipolar depression: Comparison of treatment outcome and identification of predictors of successful treatment outcome. Behavior Therapy, 17, 215–228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Teri, L., & Reifler, B. V. (1987). Depression and dementia. In L. Carstensen & B. Edelstein (Eds.), Handbook of clinical gerontology (pp. 112–119). New York: Pergamon Press.Google Scholar
  54. Teri, L., & Uomoto, J. (1986). Pleasant events and depression in Alzheimer’s patients. Unpublished manuscript, University of Washington, Seattle.Google Scholar
  55. Yesavage, J., Brink, T., Rose, T., Lum, O., Huang, O., Adey, V., & Leirer, V. (1983). Development and validation of a geriatric depression screening scale: A preliminary report. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 17, 215–228.Google Scholar
  56. Zarit, S., & Zarit, J. (1983). Cognitive impairment. In P. Lewinsohn & L. Teri (Eds.), Clinical geropsychology (pp. 38–80). New York: Pergamon Press.Google Scholar
  57. Zung, W. (1965). A self-rating depression scale. Archives of General Psychiatry, 12, 63–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • Linda Teri
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral SciencesUniversity of Washington Medical SchoolSeattleUSA

Personalised recommendations