Quantifying the Structures and Patterns of Consciousness

An Empirical-Phenomenological Approach
  • Ronald J. Pekala
Part of the Emotions, Personality, and Psychotherapy book series (EPPS)


The last 30 years have seen tremendous growth in the theorizing on the nature of consciousness (Baars, 1987, 1988; Fischer, 1971, 1978; Hilgard, 1980; Mandler, 1985; Marsh, 1977; Silverman, 1968; Tart, 1975) and its various altered (Tart, 1969, 1972) or alternate (Zinberg, 1977) states as induced by meditation (Naranjo & Ornstein, 1972; Pekala, 1987), drugs (Harman et al., 1972), hypnosis (Weitzenhoffer, 1978), EEG biofeedback (Brown, 1974), and many other altered state induction procedures (White, 1972). Since consciousness, by definition, is “awareness, especially of something within oneself” (Webster, 1970, p. 177), it would seem that introspection or phenomenological assessment (Battista, 1978) might be a very useful means to map subjective experience.


Subjective Experience Stimulus Condition Conscious Experience Altered State Overt Behavior 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ronald J. Pekala
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.West ChesterUSA
  2. 2.Veterans Administration Medical CenterBiofeedback ClinicCoatesvilleUSA

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