Advertisement

Knowledge-Based Automated Radiopharmaceutical Manufacturing for Positron Emission Tomography

  • D. L. Alexoff

Abstract

This article describes the application of basic knowledge engineering principles to the design of automated synthesis equipment for radiopharmaceuticals used in Positron Emission Tomography (PET). Before discussing knowledge programming, an overview of the development of automated radiopharmaceutical synthesis systems for PET will be presented. Since knowledge systems will rely on information obtained from machine transducers, a discussion of the uses of sensory feedback in today’s automated systems follows. Next, the operation of these automated systems is contrasted to radiotracer production carried out by chemists, and the rationale for and basic concepts of knowledge-based programming are explained. Finally, a prototype knowledge-based system supporting automated radiopharmaceutical manufacturing of 18FDG at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is described using lstClass, a commercially available PC-based expert system shell.

Keywords

Positron Emission Tomography Expert System Production Rule Brookhaven National Laboratory Automate Synthesis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Reivich, M.; Kuhl, D., Wolf, A. P.; Greenberg, J.; Phelps, M.; Ido, T.; Casella, V.; Fowler, J. S.; Hoffman, E.; Alavi, A.; Som, P.; Sokoloff, L. Circulation Res. 44: 127 (1979).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Phelps, M. E.; Hoffman, E. J.; Selín, C. J. Nucl. Med. 19: 1311 (1978).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Nagamachi, S.; Ishimatsu, K.; Yamasaki, T.; Irie, T.; Inoue, O.; Suzuki, K. Nucl. Med. Biol. 2: 2116 (1983).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Iwata, R.; Ido, T.; Takahashi, T.; Monma, M. Int. J. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 35: 445 (1984).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Alexoff, D. L.; Russell, J. A. G.; Shiue, C.-Y.; Wolf, A. P.; Fowler, J. S.; MacGregor, R. R. Int. J. Radiat. Appl. Instrum. Part A 37: 1045 (1986).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Brodack, J. W.; Dence, C. S.; Kilbourn, M. R.; Welch, M. J. Int. J. Radiat. Appl. Instrum. Part A 39: 699 (1988).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Korpela, H.; Autio, T.; Tikkinen, J.; Kamarainen, E. L. Proc. Seventh Int. Symp. on Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry. Groningen, The Netherlands, Abstract 200 (1988).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Alexoff, D. L.; Shiue, C. Y.; Blessing G.; Schlyer, D. J.; Wolf, A. P. Proc. Seventh Int. Symp. on Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry. Groningen, The Netherlands, Abstract 198 (1988).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Padgett, H. C.; Schmidt, D. G.; Luxen, A.; Bida, G. T.; Satyamurthy, N.; Barrio, J. R. Int. J. Radiat. Appl. Instrum. Part A 40: 433 (1989).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Feliu, A. L. Int. J. Radiat. Appl. Instrum. Part A 40: 531 (1989).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hamacher, K.; Blessing, G.; Nebeling, B. Int. J. Radiat. Appl. Instrum. Part A 41: 49 (1990).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ruth, T. J.; Adam, M. J.; Morris, D.; Jivan, S. J. Label. Cmpds. Radiopharm. XXIII: 1185 (1986).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Vandewalle, T.; Vandecasteele, C.; De Guchteneire, F.; Meulewaeter, L.; Van Haver, D.; Denutte, H.; Goethals, P.; Slegers, G. Int. J. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 36: 469 (1985).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Brodack, J. W.; Kilbourn, M. R.; Welch, M. J.; Katzenellenbogen, J. A. J. Nucl. Med. 27: 714 (1986).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Suzuki, K.; Inoue, O.; Hashimoto, K.; Yamasaki, T.; Kuchiki, M.; Tamate, K. Int. J. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 36: 971 (1985).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Del Fiore, G.; Peters, J. M.; Quaglia, L.; Boujelida, F.; Pardon, M. C.; Piette, J. L.; Cantineau, R.; De Landsheere, CH.; Rigo, P. J. Radioanal. Nucl. Chem., Letters 104: 301 (1986).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Ishiwata, K.; Moneta, M.; Iwata, R.; Ido, T. Int. J. Radiat. Appl. Instrum. Part A 38: 467 (1987).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Takahashi, T.; Ido, T.; Iwata, R.; Hatano, K.; Nakanishi, H.; Shinohara, M.; Iida, S. Int. J. Radiat. Appl. Instrum. Part A 39: 659 (1988).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Brodack, J. W.; Kilbourn, M. R.; Welch, M. J. Int. J. Radiat. Appl. Instrum. Part A 39: 689 (1988).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Iida, S.; Sugawara, T.; Toda, Y. Proc. Seventh Int. Symp. on Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry. Groningen, The Netherlands, Abstract 202 (1988).Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Goodman, M. M.; DeVinney, J. L.; Longford, C. P. D.;, Ladetsky, M.; Kabalka, G. W.; Larsen, J.; Hubner, K. F.; Buonocore, E. Eighth Int. Symp. on Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry. Princeton, New Jersey, 189 (1990).Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Ruth, T.; Adam, M.; Jivan, S.; Morris, D.; Tyldesley, S. Eighth Int. Symp. on Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry. Princeton, New Jersey, 310 (1990).Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Goodman, M. M.; DeVinney, J. L.; Kabalka, G. W.; Longford, C. P. D.; Ladetsky, M.; Green, J. F. Eighth Int. Symp. on Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry. Princeton, New Jersey, 168 (1990).Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Appelquist, G.; Bohm, C.; Eriksson, H.; Halldin, C.; Stone-Elander, S. Eighth Int. Symp. on Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry. Princeton, New Jersey, 163 (1990).Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Verbruggen, R.; Cogneau, M.; Dom, C.; Georges, B.; Ghyoot, M.; Jongen, Y.; Luxen, A.; Morelle, J. L.; Semal, C. Eighth Int. Symp. on Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry. Princeton, New Jersey, (1990).Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Guette, J.-P.; Crenne, N.; Bulliot, H.; Desmurs, J.-R.; Igersheim, F. Pure & Appl. Chem. 60: 1669 (1988).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Hayashi, N. and Sugawara, T. Tetrahedron Computer Methodology 1: 237 (1988).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Hayashi, N.; Sugawara, T.; Shintani, M.; Kato, S. J. Automatic Chem. 11: 212 (1989).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Kramer, G. W. and Fuchs, P. L. Advances in Laboratory Automation Robotics, J. R. Strimaitis and G. L. Hawk, Eds., Vol. 4, p. 339.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Isenhour, T. L.; Eckert, S. E.; Marshall, J. C. Anal. Chem. 61: 805 (1989).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Ido, T.; Wan, C.-N.; Casella, V.; Fowler, J. S.; Wolf, A. P.; Reivich, M.; Kuhl, D. E. J. Label. Cmpds. Radiopharm. 14: 175 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Fowler, J. S.; MacGregor, R. R.; Wolf, A. P.; Farrell, A. A.; Karlstrom, K. I.; Ruth, T. J. J. Nucl. Med. 22: 376 (1981).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Hamacher, K.; Coenen, H. H. and Stocklin, G. J. Nucl. Med. 27: 235 (1986).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Le Bars, D.; Lavenne, F.; Sasse, K.; Landais, P. Eighth Int. Symp. on Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry. Princeton, New Jersey, 110 (1990).Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Vera Ruiz, H.; Marcus, C. S.; Pike, V. W.; Coenen, H. H.; Fowler, J. S.; Meyer, G. J.; Cox, P. H.; Vaalburg, W.; Cantineau, R.; Helus, F.; Lambrecht, R. M. Int. J. Radiat. Appl. Instrum. Part B, 17: 445 (1990).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Shortliffe, E. H.; Buchanan, B. G.; Feigenbaum, E. A. Proc. IEEE 67: 1207 (1979).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Merritt, R. Industrial and Process Control Magazine 41, January (1986).Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Martz, P. R.; Heffron, M.; Griffith O. Am. Bio. Lab. 16, January/February (1986)Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Mahler, E.; Shipman, L. Scientific Computing and Automation 49, April (1989).Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Miller, R. Managing Automation 3: 44 (1988).Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Benassi, F. Managing Automation 3: 50, (1988).Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Truett, W. L. Am. Lab. 40 (1989).Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Settle, F. A., Jr.; and Pleva, M. A. Am. Lab. 20: 64 (1988).Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    th Int. Conf. on Computers in Chemical Research and Education, Riva Del Garda, Italy, May 28 - June 2, 1989. Anal. Chim. Acta 235.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Honne, B. A. and Pierce, T. H., Eds., Expert System Applications in Chemistry, 408 (1989).Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Rich, E. Artificial Intelligence. E. M. Munson and J. F. Murphy, Eds. McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, NY (1983).Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    a) G. M. Vose (Sr. Tech. Ed.) p. 148; (b) Wayner, P. p. 149–154; (c) Jones, W. P.; Hoskins, J. p. 155–164; (d) Roberts, M. p. 165172; (e) Haley, P. V. p. 173–176; (f) Sterling, L. p. 177–182; (g) Josin, G. p. 183–192 Byte 12 (1987).Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Epp, H.; Kalin, M.; Miller, D. Science 240: 824 (1988).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Ben-Aaron, D. InformationWEEK, p. 38, March 16 (1987).Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Brody, A. Info World, June 19, 1989, p. 11.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    st Class, Reference Manual, Appendix E. AI Corporation, Waltham, MA (1989).Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    st Class, Tutorials and Knowledge Engineering Guide, Chapter 4. AI Corporation, Waltham, MA (1989).Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Kershner, V. V. Advances in Laboratory Automation Robotics, J. R. Strimaitis and G. L. Hawk, Eds. Zymark Corporation, Hopkinton, MA, 4:417 (1988).Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Thompson, B. and Thompson, W. Byte 149 (1986).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. L. Alexoff
    • 1
  1. 1.Brookhaven National LaboratoryUptonUSA

Personalised recommendations