Foam Flow Behaviour in Porous Media in Relation to Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR)

  • Dhirendra Kumar


Several foam properties in relation to enhanced oil recovery by foam flooding are presented in order to understand the mechanism of fluid/oil displacement in porous media. The fluid displacement experiments were conducted under different conditions of gas injections and types of the porous media. It was observed that the breakthrough time and fluid displacement efficiency were increased with increasing surfactant concentration. At low surfactant concentration, the effective gas mobility was high, and decreased with increasing concentration. Foams were effective in reducing the gas mobility in the porous media. For high fluid displacement, the effective gas mobility should be minimal. As the permeability increased, the flow of foam through porous media also increased. The breakthrough time and fluid displacement efficiency were correlated with slug size. Results indicated that the breakthrough time (BT) and fluid displacement efficiency (FDE) or fluid recovery (FR) were increased with increasing slug size. Upon increasing temperature, the surface tension and bubble size decreased which, increased the fluid displacement efficiency. The effective gas mobility in the presence of a surfactant solution decreased with increasing temperature. The effect of applied pressure on breakthrough time and fluid displacement showed a gradual decrease in fluid displacement efficiency/oil recovery with increased applied pressure in the absence of foam. An increase in the fluid/oil displacement efficiency was observed at low pressures and in the presence of foam. In the presence of foam, the breakthrough time and fluid recovery were increased. Fluid/oil displacement efficiency increased with increasing oil viscosity. More viscous oils were recovered in lower amount compared to the less viscous oils in the presence of foam.


Porous Medium Surfactant Concentration Surfactant Solution Bubble Size Breakthrough Time 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Bond, D.C. and Holbrook, O.C.; Patent No.2,866,507, Gas drive oil recovery process (1958).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Jacobs, W.L. and Bernard, G.G.; U.S. Patent No.3,330,346 (1965).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Craig, F.F., Jr. and Lummus, J.L.; U.S. Patent No.3, 185,634 (1965).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Albrecht, R.A. and Marsden, S.S., Jr.; Soc. Pet. Eng. J., IP, 51-55 (1970).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bernard, G.G. and Holm, L.W.; Soc. Pet. Eng. J., 10, 9–16 (1970).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Belkin, H., Holbook, S. and Kuntamukkula, M.; 1st Annual Report, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM., 1-66 (1979).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Sharma, M.K. and Shah, D.O.; J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 61(3), 585–590 (1984).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Sharma, M.K., Shah, D.O. and Brigham, W.E.;Annu. Convent. DOE Contractor, Enhance oil recovery project, San Francisco, Calf., July 27-29, 74-84 (1982 b).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Sharma, M.K. and Shah, D.O.; 184th Natl. Meet., Am. Chem. Soc, Washington, D.C., (U.S.A.), August 21-26 (1982).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Mannheimer, R.J. and Schechter, R.S.; J. Colloid Interface Sci., 25, 434 (1967).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Mannheimer, R.J. and Schechter, R.S.; J. Colloid Interface Sci., 27, 324 (1968).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Mannheimer, R.J. and Schechter, R.S.; J. Colloid Interface Sci., 32, 195 (1970).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Elevens, H.B.; J. Am. Chem. Soc., 72, 3780–3785 (1950)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Elson, T.D. and Marsden, S.S.; Calif. Reg. Meet., SPE AIME San Francisco, Calif., April 12-14, 1-7, SPE 7116 (1978).Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Corrin, M.L. and Harkins, W.D.; J. Am. Chem. Soc, 69, 683–688 (1947).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Ginn, M.E., Kinney, F.B. and Harris, J.C.; J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc, 37, 183–187 (1960).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Adam, N.K.; The Physics and Chemistry of surfaces, Oxford University Press, London (1941).Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Kitchener, J.A. and Cooper, CF., The Chemical Society of London, 8. (1959).Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Puddington, I.E.; “Foams”, Pulp and Paper of Canada, 58, 243 (1957).Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Burcik, E.J.; J. Colloid Science, 5, 411 (1950).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Miles, G.D. and Ross, J.; J. Physical Chemistry, 48, 280 (1944).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Wason, D.T., Nikolov, A.D., Huang, D.D. and Edwards, D.A., “In Surfactant-Based Mobility Control” Ed. by Smith, D.H., ACS Symposium Series, 373, Am. Chem. Soc, Washington, D.C. (1988).Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Hu, P.C., Tuvell, M.E. and Bonner, G.A.; Paper SPE/DOE 12660, presented at the 4th Symposium on Enhanced Oil Recovery, April 15-18 (1984).Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Dunning, N., Eakin, J.L. and Walker, C.L.; Monograph No.11, U.S. Bureau of mines, 38-47 (1961)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Pletnev, M.Y. and Trapeznikov, A.A.; Presented at the 2nd All-Union conference [in U.S.S.R. (in russian)] Ed. by Shebekino, 33-52 (1979).Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Roberds, K., Axberg, C., Osterlund, R.; J. Colloid Interface Sci., 62, 264–272 (1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Prince, A.; Seminar presented at the Illinois Institute of Technology, June (1985).Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Reiss-Husson, F. and Luzzate, V.; J. Phys. Chem., 68, 3504–3511 (1964).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Efremov, I.F.; In “Surface and Colloid Science”, Ed. by Matijevic, E., Wiley Inter. Sci., 85, N.Y. (1976).Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Roof, J.G.; Soc. Pet. Eng. J., 85-90, March (1970).Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Mohanty, K.K., Davies, H.T. and Scriven, L.E.; SPE 9406 presented at the 55th Annu. Fall Meeting of SPE-AIME, Dallas Texas, Sept. 21-24 (1980)Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Wardlaw, N.C. and Cassan, J.P.; Bulletin of Canadian Petroleum Geology, 27, No.3, 402-404, Sept. (1979).Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Goodrich, J.H. and Watson, J.A.; In “Target Reservoirs For Carbon dioxide miscible Flooding”, Final Report, Vol.2 DOE/MC/08341-17 (1980).Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Bernard, G.G.; Proc. Monthly Vol.27, No.1, 18 (1963).Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Bennett, G.S.; M.S. Thesis in Petroleum and Natural Gas Eng., Pennsylvania State University (1963).Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Kolb, G.E.; M.S. Thesis, Pet. & Nat. Gas Eng., Penn. State Univ. (Dec, 1964).Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Bernard, G.G.; U.S. Patent No. 3, 330, 351 (1967).Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Eakin, J.L. and Eckard, W.E.; Pet. Eng., 71, July (1966).Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Nasibor, N.K.; Nefterom Delo., No.5, 23 (1970).Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Mast, R.F.; SPE 3997 Presented at SPE-AIME 47th Annual Fall Meeting, San Antonio, Texas, 8-11 October (1972).Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Marsden, S.S., Jr.; Class notes for petroleum engineering 284, Stanford University (1979).Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Caudle, B.H. and Dyes, A.B.; Trans AIME, 213, 281 (1958).Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Raza, S.H. and Marsden, S.S.; Soc. Pet. Eng. J., 359-368 (Dec. 1967).Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    David, A. and Marsden, S.S.; SPE 2544 Presented at the 44th Annual Fall Meeting of SPE-AIME, Denver, Colo., September 28 October 1 (1969).Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Holbrook, S.T., John, T.P. and Hsu, W.; SPE/DOE 9809, Presented at the SPE/DOE second joint symposium on EOR of the SPE, Tulsa, OK, April 5-8 (1981).Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Raza, S.H.; Soc. Pet. Eng. J., 328-336 (Dec. 1970).Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Minssieux, L.; J. Pet. Tech., 100-107 (Jan. 1974).Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Fried, A.N.; U.S. Bureau of mines, R.I. 5866 (1961).Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Nahid, B.h.; Ph.D. Thesis, University of Southern California Los Angeles (1971).Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Gardescu, I.I.; Trans. AIME, 86, 351 (1930).Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Kander, M. and Schechter, R.S.; SPE 6200, Presented at the 51st Annual Fall Meeting of SPE-AIME, New Orleans, LA., October 3-6 (1976).Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Marsden, S.S., Jr., Elson, T. and Guppy, K.; TR-3, Stanford University Petroleum Research Institute, Stanford, California, November (1977).Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Bikerman, J.J.; Foams, Springer-Verlag New York Inc. (1973)Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Sharma, S.K.; M.S. Report, Stanford University, (Dec. 1965)Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Egbogah, E.O. and Dawe, R.A.; Bulletin of Canadian Petroleum Geology, 28, No.2, 200 (1980).Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Mattax, C.C. and Kyte, J.R.; Oil and Gas J., 115 (Oct. 16, 1961).Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Davis, J.A. and Jones, S.C.; J. Pet. Tech., 1415 (Dec. 1968).Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Bonnet, J.; Ph.D. Thesis, Toulouse University, Toulouse, France (1978).Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Handy, L.L., Amaefule, J.O., Ziegler, V.M. and Ershaghi, I.; Inst. Symp. on Oil Field and Geothermal Chemistry, Houston, Texas, January 22-24, 61, SPE 7867 (1979).Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Handy, L.L.; In Proceedings, European Symposium on Enhanced Oil Recovery, Bournemouth, England, September 21-23. Elsevier, Lausanne, 149 (1981).Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Isaacs, E.E., Prowse, D.R. and Rankin, J.P.; 32nd Annu. Tech. Meet., Pet. Soc. CIM, Calgary, Alta., May 3-6, 1 (1981)Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Celik, M., Goyal, A., Manev, E. and Somasundaram, P.; 54th Annu. Tech. Conf., SPE-AIME, Las Vegas, Nev., September 23-26, SPE 8263 (1979).Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Ziegler, V.M. and Handy, L.L.; Soc. Pet. Eng. J., 21(2), 218 (1981).Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Holm, L.W.; Trans. AIME, 116, 225 (1959).Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Holm, L.W.; Prod. Mon., 27(9), 6 (1963).Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Holm, L.W. and Josendal, V.A.; J. Pet. Technol., 26(12). 1427 (1974).Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Holm, L.W. and O’Brien, L.J.; J. Pet. Technol., 23(4). 431 (1971).Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Heller, J.P. and Kuntamukkula, M.S.; Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 26, 318 (1987).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Heller, J.P., lien, C.L. and Kuntamukkula, M.S.; Soc. Pet. Eng. J., 25, 603 (1985).Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Radke, C.J. and Ransohoff, T.C.; Presented in part at the 61st SPE Annual Technical Conference and exhibition, New Orleans, LA, October (1986).Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Heller, J.P.; Presented at the SPE/DOE 4th Symposium on Enhanced Oil Recovery, Tulsa, OK, April (1984).Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Heller, J.P., Boone, D.A. and Watts, R.J.; Presented at the 60th Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition of SPE, Las Vegas, NV, September (1985).Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Falls, A.H. et al.; Presented at the SPE/DOE 5th Symposium on Enhanced Oil Recovery, April (1986).Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Borchardt, J.K.; Presented at the SPE International Symposium on Oil Field Chemistry, San Antonio, TX, February (1987).Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Maini, B.B., Ma, V.; J. Can. Pet. Tech., 25, 65 (1986).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dhirendra Kumar
    • 1
  1. 1.Lunglei Government CollegeLungleiIndia

Personalised recommendations