Advertisement

Afterword

  • Tom Dwyer
Part of the Plenum Studies in Work and Industry book series (SSWI)

Abstract

Weber and Saint-Simon observed the significance of expertise and scientific knowledge for modern organizations, and in so doing they perceived how these profoundly affected the character of modern society as a whole. However, another side to modernization has always existed: it can be perceived in the failures of bureaucracy, rationalization, market capitalism, and state socialism, through employing scientific and technical knowledge, to produce a society that could be considered educated, healthy, just, and free. Further “development,” and the accompanying extension of rationalization, have been ceaselessly represented as capable of ensuring that solutions could eventually be found to all major social problems. Belief in such a utopian representation is on the decline in many modernized societies. From Chernobyl to Challenger, from the perceived failures of educational systems to educate and of hospitals to heal, the model crumbles.

Keywords

Medical Error Radical Mastectomy Gang Member Error Production Perverse Effect 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Notes

  1. 1.
    Y. Aharoni. 1981. The No-Risk Society, p. 172. Chatham, NJ: Chatham House.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    A. W. Gouldner, 1959. Organizational analysis, in R. K. Merton, L. Broom, and L. S. Cottrell (eds.). 1959. Sociology Today, pp. 400–428. New York: Basic Books. I. Berg. 1986. Deregulating the economy and reforming workers: The eclipse of industrial democracy, in R. Mulvihill (ed.). 1986. Reflections on America, 1984: An Orwell Symposium, pp. 136–158. Athens: University of Georgia Press. A. Touraine. 1988. Modernity and cultural specificities. International Social Science Journal 40 (118): 443 – 457.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Z. Brandao, A. M. B. Baeta, and A. D. C. da Rocha. 1983. O estado da arte da pesquisa sobre evasao e repetencia no ensino de 1° grau no Brasil. Revista Brasileira de Estudos Pedagogicos 64(147): 38–69 (p. 61 ).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    R. Girod. 1981. Politiques d’Éducation. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, cited in A. Touraine. 1988. The Return of the Actor, p. 72. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    S. Y. Fagerhaugh, A. Strauss, B. Suczek, and C. L. Wiener. 1987. Ensuring Patient Safety. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, discuss this concept.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    L. Payer. 1988. Medicine and Culture. New York: Holt.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    P. Willis. 1981. Learning to Labor. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    F. Dubet. 1987. Conduites marginales des jeunes et classes sociales. Revue Française de Sociologie 28: 265 – 286.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    L. Demailly. 1987. La qualification ou la competence professionnelle des enseignants. Sociologie du Travail 1:59–69. L. R. Tancredi and J. A. Barondess. 1978. The problem of defensive medicine. Science 200 (May 26): 879 – 882.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    A variety of studies provide data and insights that permit these and other sociological insights to be drawn, for example: Fagerhaugh et al.,1988; Brandao et al.,1983; H. Becker. 1952. Social dass variations in the teacher-pupil relationship, in H. Becker. 1970. Sociological Work: Method and Substance. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Books; M. Millman. 1977. The Unkindest Cut: Life in the Backrooms of Medicine. New York: William Morrow; C. L. Bosk. 1979. Forgive and Remember: Managing Medical Failure. Chicago: University of Chicago Press; and S. Joel. 1978. Medicine and the Reign of Technology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. In a less sociological vein: F. Robin and F. Nativi. 1987. Enquéte sur l’Erreur Médicale. Paris: Maspero. For an attempt to build a radical critique of education that contains many insights into the social production of error see: S. Aronowitz and H. Giroux. 1985. Education under Siege. Westport, CT: Bergin and Garvey.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    E. Parker. 1989. L’éducation peut causer des catastrophes. Futuribles 131 (April): 17–28.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Once formulated, a theory of error can be tested. Research by Dubet et al. and Barley was mentioned in Chapter 4 as seeking to provide controlled observations of interventions in hospitals and schools. As such, these provide potential models for studies that might seek to test specific hypotheses drawn from a theory.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    C. E. Silberman. 1970. Crisis in the Classroom, p. 4. New York: Random House.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    I. Illich. 1970. Deschooling Society. New York: Harper & Row. I. Illich. 1977. Medical Nemesis. New York: Bantam. P. Freire. 1973. Pedagogy of the Oppressed. New York: Seabury. S. Papert. 1980. Mind Storms. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tom Dwyer
    • 1
  1. 1.Universidade Estadual de CampinasSão PauloBrazil

Personalised recommendations