Evidence for Animal Reservoirs and Transmission of Giardia Infection between Animal Species

  • Patrick K. Woo


Although a great deal of experimental work has been done on transmission of Giardia between animal species, relatively little of that is conclusive. This is unfortunate because as will be shown later, knowledge of host specificity may help to resolve a fundamental problem, i.e., defining species within this genus. Also, conclusive knowledge regarding host specificity of various Giardia is essential in determining the existing or potential reservoirs of disease-causing members (e.g., G. lamblia). Meyer and Jarroll (1980) pointed out that there “is no general agreement regarding those characteristics which define species in the genus Giardia.” Part of the problem may be that it is generally more difficult to apply the species concepts to agamous organisms that are morphologically similar.


Host Specificity Giemsa Stain Median Body Giardia Lamblia Intestinal Protozoan 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Abraham, R., 1962, On two new species of Giardia parasitic in Indian mammals, Parasitology 52:59–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Afchain, D., LeRay, D., Fruit, J., and Capron, A., 1979, Antigenic make-up of Trypanosoma cruzi culture forms: Identification of a specific component, J. Parasitol. 65:507–514.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Alp, M. H., and Hislop, I. G., 1969, The effect of Giardia lamblia infestation on the gastrointestinal tract, Aust. Ann. Med. 18:232–237.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Al-Taqui, M., and Evans, D. A., 1978, Characterization of Leishmania spp. from Kuwait by isoenzyme electrophoresis, Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 72:56–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Ament, M. E., and Rubin, C. E., 1972, Relation of giardiasis to abnormal intestinal structure and function in gastrointestinal immunodeficiency syndromes, Gastroenterology 62:216–226.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Andersson, T., Forsell, J., and Sterner, G., 1972, Outbreak of giardiasis: Effect of a new antiflagellate drug, tinidazole, Br. Med. J. 2:449–451.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Ansari, M. A. R., 1952, Contribution à l’étude du genre Giardia Kunstler, 1882 (Mastigophora: Octomitidae), Ann. Parasitol. Hum. Comp. 27:421–479.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Armaghan, V., 1937, Biological studies on the Giardia of rats, Am. J. Hyg. 26:236–258.Google Scholar
  9. Armaghan, V., and Mediary, G. C, 1938, A survey of intestinal protozoa and effect of aldarsone on Giardia and other intestinal protozoa of man, Am. J. Hyg. 27:250–257.Google Scholar
  10. Bagster, I. A., and Parr, C. W., 1973, Trypanosome identification by electrophoresis of soluble enzymes, Nature (London) 244:364–366.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Baker, J. R., and Thompson, G. B., 1971, Two species of Trypanosoma from British Chiroptera (bats), Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 65:427.Google Scholar
  12. Barbour, A. G., Nichols, C. R., and Fukushima, T., 1976, An outbreak of giardiasis in a group of campers, Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 25:384.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Barretto, P., 1976, Possible role of wild mammals and triatomines in the transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi to man, in: New Approaches in American Trypanosomiasis Research, Pan Am. Health Organ. Sci. Publ. No. 318, pp. 307-318.Google Scholar
  14. Bemrick, W. H., 1962, The host specificity of Giardia from laboratory strains of Mus musculus and Rattus norvegicus, J. Parasitol. 48:287–290.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bice, D. E., and Zeledon, R., 1971, Immunoelectrophoretic comparison of Trypanosoma vespertilionis and Trypanosoma cruzi, Rev. Biol. Trop. 19:149–152.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Boeck, W. C, 1917, Mitosis in Giardia microti, Univ. Calif. Publ. Zool. 18:1–26.Google Scholar
  17. Boeck, W. C, 1919, Studies on Giardia microti, Univ. Calif. Publ. Zool. 19:85–134.Google Scholar
  18. Bohne, A., and von Prowazek, S., 1908, Zur Frage der Flagellatendysenterie, Arch. Protistenkd. 12:1–8.Google Scholar
  19. Bonestell, A. E., 1935, Transmission of Giardia lamblia and G. muris to the wood rat, J. Parasitol. 21:317–318.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Bower, S. M., and Woo, P. T. K., 1977a, Morphology and host specificity of Cryptobia catostomi n. sp. (Protozoa: Kinetoplastida) from white sucker (Catostomus commersoni) in southern Ontario, Can. J. Zool. 55:1082–1092.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Bower, S. M., and Woo, P. T. K., 1977b, Cryptobia catostomi: Incubation in plasma of susceptible and refractory fishes, Exp. Parasitol. 43:63–68.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Bower, S. M., and Woo, P. T. K., 1981, Two new species of trypanosomes (subgenus Schizotrypanum) in bats in southern Ontario, Can. J. Zool. 59:530–545.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Bower, S. M., and Woo, P. T. K., 1982, Immunological comparison of four Trypanosoma spp. (subgenus Schizotrypanum) from bats, Parasitology 85:111–114.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Burke, J. A., 1975, Giardiasis in childhood, Am. J. Dis. Child. 129:1304–1310.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Centers for Disease Control, 1977, Intestinal Parasite Surveillance Annual Summary, 1976.Google Scholar
  26. Centers for Disease Control, 1979, Giardiasis in apes and zoo attendants, Kansas City, Missouri, Veterinary Public Health Notes pp. 7-8.Google Scholar
  27. Chance, M. L., 1976, DNA relationship in the genus Leishmania, in: Biochemistry of Parasites and Host-Parasite Relationships (H. van den Bossche, ed.), pp. 229–235, Elsevier/North-Holland, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  28. Chance, M. L., Peters, W., and Shchory, L., 1974, The biochemical taxonomy of Leishmania. I. DNA studies, Ann. Trop. Med. Parasitol. 68:307–316.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Cheissen, E. M., 1964, Ultrastructure of Lamblia duodenalis. I. Body surface, sucking disc and median bodies, J. Protozool. 11:91–98.Google Scholar
  30. Cheissen, E. M., 1965, Ultrastructure of Lamblia duodenalis. 2. The locomotory apparatus, axial rod and other organelles, Arch. Protistenkd. 108:8–18.Google Scholar
  31. Craft, J. C, 1982, Experimental infection with Giardia lamblia in rats, J. Infect. Dis. 145:495–498.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Craun, G. F., 1979, Waterborne outbreaks of giardiasis, in: Waterborne Transmission of Giardiasis (W. Jakubowski and J. C. Hoff, eds.), Environmental Protection Agency, 600/7-79-001, pp. 127-149.Google Scholar
  33. Danciger, M., and Lopez, M., 1975, Numbers of Giardia in the feces of infected children, Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 24:237–242.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Davies, R. B., and Hibler, C. P., 1979, Animal reservoirs and cross-species transmission of Giardia, in: Waterborne Transmission of Giardiasis (W. Jakubowski and J. C. Hoff, eds.), Environmental Protection Agency, 600/7-79-001, pp. 104-126.Google Scholar
  35. Doust, J. Y., Haghighi, L., and Kavoussi, K. M., 1969, Duodenitis and giardiasis, J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 72:284–285.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Dykes, A. C, Juranek, D. D., Lorenz, R. A., Sinclair, S., Jakubowski, W., and Davies, R., 1980, Municipal waterborne giardiasis: An epidemiologic investigation, Ann. Intern. Med. 92:165–170.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Ebert, F., 1974, Elektrophoretische Untersuchungen an Leishmania tropica Stammen, Z, Tropenmed. Parasitol. 25:49–53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Fantham, H. B., and Porter, A., 1916, The pathogenicity of Giardia (Lamblia) intestinalis to man and to experimental animals, Br. Med. J. 2:139–141.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Filice, F. P., 1952, Studies on the cytology and life history of a Giardia from the laboratory rat, Univ. Calif. Publ Zool. 57:53–143.Google Scholar
  40. Flynn, R. J., 1973, Parasites of Laboratory Animals, Iowa State University Press, Ames.Google Scholar
  41. Friend, D. S., 1966, The fine structure of Giardia muns, J. Cell Biol. 29:317–332.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Gardener, P. J., Chance, M. L., and Peters, W., 1974, Biochemical taxonomy of Leishmania. II. Electrophoretic variation of malate dehydrogenase, Ann. Trop. Med. Parasitol. 68:317–325.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Goltz, J. P., 1980, Giardiasis in chinchillas, M.Sc. thesis, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada.Google Scholar
  44. Grant, D. R., and Woo, P. T. K., 1978a, Comparative studies of Giardia spp. in small mammals in southern Ontario. I. Prevalence and identity of the parasites with a taxonomic discussion of the genus, Can. J. Zool. 56:1348–1359.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Grant, D. R., and Woo, P. T. K., 1978b, Comparative studies of Giardia spp. in small mammals in southern Ontario. II. Host specificity and infectivity of stored cysts, Can. J. Zool. 56:1360–1366.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Grant, D. R., and Woo, P. T. K., 1979, Comparative studies of Giardia spp. in small mammals in southern Ontario. III. Duration and cyst production in natural and experimental infections, Can. J. Zool. 57:307–313.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Haiba, M. H., 1953, Studies on the Morphology and Biology of Giardia, Cairo University Press, Cairo.Google Scholar
  48. Haiba, M. H., 1956, Further study on the susceptibility of murines to human giardiasis, Z. Parasitenkd. 17:339–345.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Haiba, M. H., and Williamson, J., 1952, The pH of normal, starved and Giardia-infected Norway rats, Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 46:85–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Hartong, W. A., Gourley, W. K., and Arvanitakis, C., 1975, Giardiasis: Clinical spectrum and functional—structural abnormalities of the small intestinal mucosa, Gastroenterology 77:61–69.Google Scholar
  51. Hegner, R. W., 1922, A comparative study of the giardias living in man, rabbit and dog, Am. J. Hyg. 2:442–454.Google Scholar
  52. Hegner, R. W., 1924, Giardia and Chilomastix from monkeys, Giardia from the wild cat and Balantidium from the sheep, J. Parasitol. 11:75–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Hegner, R. W., 1926a, Giardia beckeri n.sp. from the ground squirrel and Endamoeba dipomysi n.sp. from the kangaroo rat, J. Parasitol. 12:203–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Hegner, R. W., 1926b, The biology of host-parasite relationships among protozoa living in man, Q Rev. Biol. 1:393–418.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Hegner, R. W., 1930, Host-parasite specificity in the genus Giardia, in: Problems and Methods of Research in Protozoology (R. W. Hegner and J. Andrews, eds.), pp. 143–153, Macmillan Co., New York.Google Scholar
  56. Hewlett, E. L., Andrews, J. S., Jr., Ruffier, J., and Schaefer, F. W., III, 1982, Experimental infection of mongrel dogs with Giardia lamblia cysts and cultured trophozoites, J. Infect. Dis. 145:89–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Hoare, C. A., 1972, The Trypanosomes of Mammals: A Zoological Monograph, Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, England.Google Scholar
  58. Holberton, D. V., 1973, Fine structure of the ventral disc apparatus and the mechanism of attachment in the flagellate Giardia muris, J. Cell Sci. 13:11–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Jacobi, K., and Kretschmar, W., 1962, Die Milchtherapie der Malaria-Infektion (Plasmodium berghei) bei der Maus, Z. Tropenmed. Parasitol. 13:286–304.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Kessel, J. F., 1929, Experimental giardiasis in kittens and puppies, J. Parasitol. (Suppl.) 16:99–100.Google Scholar
  61. Keystone, J. S., Krajden, S., and Warren, M. R., 1978, Person-to-person transmission of Giardia lamblia in day-care nurseries, Can. Med. Assoc. J. 119:241–248.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Kilgour, V., and Godfrey, D. G., 1973, Species characteristic isoenzymes of two amino transferases in trypanosomes, Nature New Biol. 244:69–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Kilgour, V., and Godfrey, D. G., 1977, The persistence in the field of two characteristic isoenzyme patterns in Nigerian Trypanosoma vivax, Ann. Trop. Med. Parasitol. 71:387–389.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Kilgour, V., Gardener, P. J., Godfrey, D. G., and Peters, W., 1974, Demonstration of electrophoretic variation of two amino transferases in Leishmania, Ann. Trop. Med. Parasitol 68:245–264.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Knight, R., 1978, Giardiasis, isosporiasis and balantidiasis, Clin. Gastroenterol. 7:31–47.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Kofoid, C. A., and Christiansen, E. B., 1915, On Giardia microti sp. nov. from the meadow mouse, Univ. Calif. Publ. Zool. 16:23–29.Google Scholar
  67. Kofoid, C. A., and Sweezy, O., 1922, Mitosis and fission in the active and encysted phases of Giardia enterica (Grassi) of man, with a discussion of the method of origin of bilateral symmetry in the polymastigote flagellates, Univ. Calif. Publ. Zool. 20:199–234.Google Scholar
  68. Kretschmar, W., 1962, Resitenz und Immunitat bei mit Plasmodium berghei infizierten Mausen, Z, Tropenmed. Parasitol. 13:159–175.Google Scholar
  69. Kretschmar, W., and Voller, A., 1973, Suppression of Plasmodium ßaciparum malaria in Aotus monkeys by milk diet, Z, Tropenmed. Parasitol. 24:51–59.Google Scholar
  70. Lavier, G., 1924, Deux espèces de Giardia du rat d’egout Parisien (Epimys norvegicus), Ann. Parasitol. Hum. Comp. 11:161–168.Google Scholar
  71. Lavier, G., 1939, Le mode de division des formes vegetatives dans le genre Giardia, C.R. Soc.Biol. 120:198–200.Google Scholar
  72. Lennette, E. H., Spaulding, E. H., and Truant, J. P., 1974, Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 2nd ed., American Society of Microbiologists, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  73. Levine, N. D., 1973, Protozoan Parasites of Domestic Animals and of Man. 2nd ed., Burgess, Minneapolis.Google Scholar
  74. Macfie, J. W. S., 1922, Observations on the role of cockroaches in disease, Ann. Trop. Med. Parasitol. 16:441–448.Google Scholar
  75. Mayr, E., (ed.), 1957, Species concepts and definitions, in: The Species Problem, pp. 1–22, Am. Assoc. Adv. Sci, Publ., Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  76. Mayr, E., 1963, Animal Species and Evolution, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass.Google Scholar
  77. Mayr, E., 1976, Evolution and the Diversity of Life: Selected Essays, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass.Google Scholar
  78. Meyer, E.A., 1970, Isolation and axenic cultivation of Giardia trophozoites from the rabbit, chinchilla and cat, Exp. Parasitol. 27:179–183.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Meyer, E. A., 1976, Giardia lamblia: Isolation and axenic cultivation, Exp. Parasitol. 39:101–105.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Meyer, E. A., and Jarroll, E. J., 1980, Giardiasis, Am. J. Epidemiol. 3:1–12.Google Scholar
  81. Molyneux, D. H., 1976, Biology of trypanosomes of the subgenus Herpetosoma, in: Biology of the Kinetoplastida, Vol. I (W. H. R. Lumsden and D. A. Evans, eds.), pp. 285–325, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  82. Morgan, B. B., 1949, Giardia infection in a chinchilla, J. Parasitol. (Suppl.) 35:34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Myers, B. J., and Kuntz, R. E., 1968, Intestinal protozoa of the baboon Papio doguera Pucheran, 1856, J. Protozool. 15:363–365.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Navarathnam, E. S., 1969, Description of a new species of Giardia from the Indian goat Capra hircus, Riv. Parassitol. 30:1–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Newton, B. A., 1971, DNA of stercorarian trypanosomes, Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 65:425–426.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Newton, B. A., 1976, Biochemical approaches to the taxonomy of kinetoplastid flagellates, in: The Biology of the Kinetoplastida, Vol. I (W. H. R. Lumsden and D. A. Evans, eds.), pp. 405–434, 542, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  87. Newton, B. A., and Burnett, J. K., 1972, DNA of kinetoplastidae: A comparative study, in: Comparative Biochemistry of Parasites (H. van den Bossche, ed.), pp. 127–138, Academic Press, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Nieschulz, O., 1924, Über den Bau von Giardia caprae mihi, Arch. Protistenkd. 49:278–286.Google Scholar
  89. Nieschulz, O., and Krijgsman, B. J., 1925, Über Giardia simoni Lavier, Arch. Protistenkd. 52:166–169.Google Scholar
  90. Noc, F., 1909, Observations sur le cycle évolutif de Lamblia intestinalis, Bull. Soc. Pathol. Exot. 2:93–97.Google Scholar
  91. Padchenko, I. K., and Stolyarchuk, N. G., 1969, On the possible circulation of Lamblia in nature, Prog. Protozool. pp. 311-312.Google Scholar
  92. Perera, D. R., Weinstein, W. M., and Rubin, C. E., 1975, Symposium on pathology of the gastrointestinal tract. Part II. Small intestinal biopsy, Hum. Pathol. 6:157–217.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Perroncito, E., 1888, Note sur l’enkystement du Megastoma intestinale, Bull. Soc. Zool. Fr. 13:16.Google Scholar
  94. Reardon, L. V., and Rininger, B. F., 1968, A survey of parasites in laboratory primates, Lab. Anim. Care 18:577–580.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Rendtorff, R. C, 1954, The experimental transmission of human intestinal parasites. II. Giardia cysts given in capsules, Am. J. Hyg. 59:209–220.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Ridley, J. J., and Ridley, D. S., 1976, Serum antibodies and jejunal histology in giardiasis associated with malabsorption, J. Clin. Pathol. 29:30–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Rifkin, M. R., 1978, Identification of the trypanocidal factor in normal human serum: High density lipoprotein, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 75:3450–3454.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Roberts-Thomson, I. C, and Mitchell, G. F., 1979, Protection of mice against Giardia muris infection, Infect. Immun. 24:971–973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Roberts-Thomson, I. C., Stevens, D. P., Mahmoud, A. A. F., and Warren, K. S., 1976, Acquired resistance to infection in an animal model of giardiasis, J. Immunol. 117:2036–2037.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Root, F. M., 1921, Experiments on the carriage of intestinal protozoa of man by flies, Am. J. Hyg. 1:131–153.Google Scholar
  101. Ruch, T. C., 1959, Diseases of Laboratory Primates, Saunders, Philadelphia.Google Scholar
  102. Saha, T. K., and Ghosh, T. K., 1977, Invasion of small intestinal mucosa by Giardia lamblia in man, Gastroenterology 72:402–405.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Savory, T., 1970, Animal Taxonomy, Heinemann, London.Google Scholar
  104. Seamer, J., and Chestermann, F. C., 1967, A survey of disease in laboratory animals, Lab. Anim. 1:117–139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Sehgal, A. K., Grewal, M. S., Chakravarti, R. N., Broor, S. L., Deka, N. C., and Chhuttani, P. N., 1976, Experimental giardiasis in albino rats, Indian J. Med. Res. 64:1015–1018.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Shelton, G. C., 1954, Giardiasis in the chinchilla. I. Observations on morphology, location in the intestinal tract and host specificity, Am. J. Vet. Res. 15:71–74.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Simon, C. E., 1921, Giardia enterica: A parasitic intestinal flagellate of man, Am. J. Hyg. 1:440–491.Google Scholar
  108. Simon, C. E., 1922, A critique of the supposed rodent origin of human giardiasis, Am. J. Hyg. 2:406–434.Google Scholar
  109. Simpson, G. G., 1961, Principles of Animal Taxonomy, Columbia University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  110. Solovjev, M. M. 1975, Biometrical studies of the trophozoites of Lamblia from mammals in regards to the taxonomy of the genus Lamblia [in Russian], Parassitologia (Rome) 9:449–455.Google Scholar
  111. Sonneborn, T. M., 1957, Breeding systems, reproductive methods and species problems in Protozoa, in: The Species Problem (E. Mayr, ed.), pp. 155–324, Am. Assoc. Adv. Sci. Publ, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  112. Soria, G. H., and Dusanic, D. G., 1975, Comparative studies of Trypanosoma vespertilionis Battaglia and Trypanosoma dionisii Bettencourt and Franca, J. Protozool. 22:509–513.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Sparrow, S., 1976, The microbiological and parasitological status of laboratory animals from accredited breeders in the United Kingdom, Lab. Anim. 10:365–373.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Stiles, C. W., and Keister, W. S., 1913, Flies as carriers of Lamblia spores, Public Health Rep. 28:2530–2534.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Supperer, R., and Kutzer, E., 1964, Untersuchungen über die Giardiose (Lambliose) der Chinchillas, Wien. Tieraerztl. Monatsschr. (Suppl.) 51:286–295.Google Scholar
  116. Thompson, R. G., Karandikar, D. S., and Leek, J., 1974, Giardiasis, an unusual cause of epidemic diarrhoea, Lancet i:615–616.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Vinayak, V. K., Sharma, G. L., and Naik, S. R., 1979, Experimental Giardia lamblia infection in Swiss mice: A preliminary report, Indian J. Med. Res. 70:195–198.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Wehnert, S. D., and Woo, P. T. K., 1980, In vivo and in vitro studies on the host specificity of Trypanoplasma salmositica, J. Wildl. Dis. 16:183–187.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Wolfe, M. S., 1975, Giardiasis, J. Am. Med. Assoc. 233:1362.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Wolfe, M. S., 1978, Giardiasis, N. Engl. J. Med. 298:319–321.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Wolfe, M. S., 1979, Managing the patient with giardiasis: Clinical diagnostic and therapeutic aspects, in: Waterborne Transmission of Giardiasis (W. Jakubowski and J. C. Hoff, eds.), Environmental Protection Agency, 600/7-79-001, pp. 39-52.Google Scholar
  122. Yardley, J. H., Takano, J., and Hendrix, T. R., 1964, Epithelial and other lesions of the jejunum in giardiasis: Jejunal biopsy studies, Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp. 115:389–406.Google Scholar
  123. Young, M. D., 1937, Cockroaches as carriers of Giardia cysts, J. Parasitol 23:102–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • Patrick K. Woo
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Zoology, College of Biological ScienceUniversity of GuelphGuelphCanada

Personalised recommendations