Human Immune Responses to Giardia lamblia
Epidemiologic, clinical, and experimental observations indicate that man develops an immune response to Giardia lamblia. Studies of several giardiasis outbreaks (Moore et al., 1969; Barbour et al., 1976) show that individuals repeatedly exposed to G. lamblia have a lower incidence of infection and symptoms than newly exposed individuals, suggesting that prior exposure imparts partial resistance to reinfection. Clinical observations (Hughes et al., 1971; Ajdukiewicz et al., 1972; Ament et al., 1973; Brown et al., 1973; Hermans et al., 1976) of hypogammaglobulinemic patients reveal that these individuals have an increased prevalence of giardiasis, emphasizing the potential importance of antibody in the immunity to this parasite. In addition, a high prevalence of G. lamblia infection in homosexual men (Meyers et al., 1977; Hurwitz and Owen, 1978; Schmerin et al., 1978) suggests that cellular immunity may participate in man’s response to Giardia, since many homosexuals have an acquired T-cell defect (Masur et al., 1982; Siegal et al., 1982; Gottlieb et al., 1982). As discussed in Chapter 11, recent investigations (Roberts-Thomson et al., 1976; Stevens et al., 1978; Roberts-Thomson and Mitchell, 1978) in experimental G. muris infection in mice confirm the role of immunity in the murine response to Giardia, Recently, macrophages have also been implicated in immunity to this parasite, since macrophages of both mice (Owen et al., 1981) and rabbits (Radulescu and Meyer, 1981) are capable of phagocytosing Giardia.
KeywordsHuman Immune Response Giardia Lamblia ADCC Assay Peripheral Blood Granulocyte Minor Antigen
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Gottlieb, M. S., Schroff, R., Schanker, H. M., Weisman, J. D., Fan, P. T., Wolf, R. A., and Saxon, A., 1982, Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia and mucosal candidiasis in previously healthy homosexual men: Evidence of a new acquired cellular immunodeficiency, N. Engl. J. Med. 305:1425–1431.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Masur, H., Michelis, M. A., Green, J. B., Onorato, I., Vande Stouwe, R. A., Holzman, R. S. Warmser, G., Brettman, L., Lange, M., Murray, H. W., and Cunningham-Rundles, S., 1982, An outbreak of community-acquired Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia: Initial manifestation of cellular immune dysfunction, N. Engl.J. Med. 305:1431–1438.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Meyers, J. D., Kuharic, H. A., and Holmes, K. K., 1977, Giardia lamblia infection in homosexual men, Br.J. Yener. Dis. 55:54–55.Google Scholar
- Siegal, F. P., Lopez, C., Hammer, G. S., Brown, A. E., Kornfield, S. J., Gold, J., Hassett, J., Hirschman, S. F., Cunningham-Rundles, C., Adelsberg, B. R., Parham, D. M., Siegal, M., Cunningham-Rundles, S., and Armstrong, D., 1982, Severe acquired immunodeficiency in male homosexuals, manifested by chronic perianal ulcerative herpes simplex lesions, N. Engl. J. Med. 305:1439–1444.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Smith, P. D., Elson, C. O., and Wahl, S., 1983b, Human monocyte recruitment by and phagocytosis of Giardia lamblia, Fed. Proc. 42:857.Google Scholar
- Yardley, J. H., Takano, J., and Hendrix, T. R., 1964, Epithelial and other mucosal lesions of the jejunum in giardiasis: Jejunal biopsy studies, Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp. 115:389–406.Google Scholar