Advertisement

Habilitation Programs

  • Janis Chadsey-Rusch
  • Frank R. Rusch
Part of the Applied Clinical Psychology book series (NSSB)

Abstract

There is little doubt that the last decade witnessed major legal, philosophical, and methodological advances that have improved the quality of life for mentally retarded individuals. Legislation (e. g., P.L. 94–142) enacted in the mid-1970s has resulted in the majority of mentally retarded children and youth receiving their education in public schools (Certo, 1983). The philosophical tenets of normalization, although often misunderstood, have led to the wholesale proliferation of ideology that supports the use of culturally normative procedures to achieve culturally normative outcomes (Wolfensberger, 1972). Finally, during the last decade a host of behavioral procedures have been developed and critically evaluated. These methods have shown great promise in treating a wide variety of clinically relevant problems (cf. The Journal of the Association for Persons with Severe Handicaps, 1975 to the present). Despite these three influences upon improving quality of life, many mentally retarded persons receive minimal community acceptance.

Keywords

Adaptive Behavior Social Comparison Maladaptive Behavior Apply Behavior Analysis Mental Deficiency 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Azrin, N. H., & Armstrong, P. M. (1973). The “mini-meal”—A method for teaching eating skills to the profoundly retarded. Mental Retardation, 11, 9–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Azrin, N. H., Kaplan, J. J., & Foxx, R. M. (1973). Autism reversal: Eliminating stereotyped self-stimulation of retarded individuals. American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 78, 241–248.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Baer, D. M., Wolf, M. M., & Risley, T. R. (1968). Some current dimensions of applied behavior analysis. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 1, 91–97.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Barker, R. G. (1968). Ecological psychology. Stanford: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  5. Bates, Paul. (1980). The effectiveness of interpersonal skills training on the social skill acquisition of moderately and mildly retarded adults. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 13, 237–248.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bellamy, G. T., Peterson, L., & Close, D. (1975). Habilitation of the severely and profoundly retarded: Illustrations of competence. Education and Training of the Mentally Retarded, 10, 174–186.Google Scholar
  7. Bellamy, T., & Buttars, U. L. (1975). Teaching trainable level retarded subjects to count money: Toward personal independence through academic instruction. Education and Training of the Mentally Retarded, 10, 18–26.Google Scholar
  8. Berkson, G., & Landesman-Dwyer, S. (1977). Behavioral research on severe and profound mental retardation (1955-1974). American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 81, 428–454.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Berkson, G., & Romer, D. (1980). Social ecology of supervised communal facilities for mentally disabled adults: An introduction. American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 85, 219–228.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Bijou, S. W. (1982). Waves of the future in the educational intervention of developmental disabilities. Analysis and Intervention in Developmental Disabilities, 2, 253–267.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bornstein, P. H., Bach, P. J., McFall, M. E., Friman, P. C., & Lyons, P. D. (1980). Application of a social skills training program in the modification of interpersonal deficits among retarded adults: A clinical replication. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 13, 171–176.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Brooks, P. H., & Baumeister, A. A. (1977). A plea for consideration of ecological validity in experimental psychology of mental retardation: A guest editorial. American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 81, 407–416.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Brunswik, E. (1955). Representative design and probablistic theory in a functional psychology. Psychological Review, 62, 193–217.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Carr, E. G., Newsom, C. D., & Binkoff, J. A. (1980). Escape as a factor in the aggressive behavior of two retarded children. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 13, 101–117.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Casey, L. O. (1978). Development of communicative behavior in autistic children: A parent program using manual signs. Journal of Autism and Childhood Schizophrenia, 8, 45–59.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Certo, N. (1983). Characteristics of educational services. In M. E. Snell (Ed.), Systematic instruction of the moderately and severely handicapped (2nd ed., pp. 2–15). Columbus: Charles E. Merrill.Google Scholar
  17. Chadsey-Rusch, J. G. (1985). Community integration and mental retardation: The eco-behavioral approach to service provision and assessment. In R. H. Bruininks & K. C. Lakin (Eds.), Living and learning in the least restrictive environment (pp. 245–260). Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes.Google Scholar
  18. Close, D. W., Irvin, L. K., Prehm, H. J., & Taylor, V. E. (1978). Systematic correction procedures in vocational-skill training of severely retarded individuals. American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 83, 270–275.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Connis, R. T., & Rusch, F. R. (1980). Programming maintenance through sequential withdrawal of social contingencies. Behavior Research of Severe Developmental Disabilities, 1, 249–260.Google Scholar
  20. Eyman, R., O’Connor, G., Tarjan, G., & Justice, R. (1972). Factors determining residential placement of mentally retarded children. American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 76, 692–698.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Flavell, J. E. (1973). Reduction of stereotypies by reinforcement of toy play. Mental Retardation, 6, 1–14.Google Scholar
  22. Frankel, F., & Simmons, J. Q. (1976). Self-injurious behavior in schizophrenic and retarded children. American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 80, 512–522.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Garcia, E. (1974). The training and generalization of a conversational speech form in nonverbal retardates. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 7, 137–194.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Haywood, H. C., Meyers, C. E., & Switzky, H. N. (1982). Mental retardation. Annual Review of Psychology, 33, 309–342.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Hill, B., & Bruininks, R. (1981). Physical and behavioral characteristics and maladaptive behavior of mentally retarded people in residential facilities: Project Report 12. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota.Google Scholar
  26. Horner, R. (1980). The effects of an environmental “enrichment” program on the behavior of institutionalized profoundly retarded children. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 13, 473–491.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Horner, R., & Keilitz, F. (1975). Training mentally retarded adolescents to brush their teeth. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 8, 301–309.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Irvin, L. K. (1976). General utility of easy to hard discrimination training procedures with the severely retarded. Education and Training of the Mentally Retarded, 11, 247–250.Google Scholar
  29. Jackson, G. M., Johnson, C. R., Ackron, G. S., & Crowley, R. (1975). Food satiation as a procedure to decelerate vomiting. American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 80, 223–227.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Johnson, J. L., & Mithaug, D. E. (1978). A replication of sheltered workshop entry requirements. AAESPH Review, 3, 116–122.Google Scholar
  31. Kazdin, A. E. (1977). Assessing the clinical or applied importance of behavior change through social validation. Behavior Modification, 1, 427–452.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Kazdin, A. E., & Matson, J. L. (1981). Social validation in mental retardation. Applied Research in Mental Retardation, 2, 39–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Martin, J. E., Rusch, F. R., James, V. L., Decker, P. J., & Trtol, K. A. (1982). The use of picture cues to establish self-control in the preparation of complex meals by mentally retarded adults. Applied Research in Mental Retardation, 3(21), 105–119.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Matson, J. L. (1980). A controlled group study of pedestrain skill training for the mentally retarded. Behavior Research and Therapy, 18, 97–106.Google Scholar
  35. Matson, J. L., & Martin, J. E. (1979). A social learning approach to vocational training of the severely retarded. Journal of Mental Deficiency Research, 23, 9–16.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Mithaug, D. E. (1978). Case study in training generalized instruction-following responses to preposition-noun combinations in a severely retarded young adult. AAESPH Review, 3, 230–245.Google Scholar
  37. Mithaug, D. E., & Hagmeier, L. D. (1978). The development of procedures to assess pre-vocational competencies of severely handicapped young adults. AAESPH Review, 3, 94–115.Google Scholar
  38. Mithaug, D. E., & Hanawalt, D. A. (1978). The validation of procedures to assess pre-vocational task preferences in retarded adults. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 11, 153–162.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Mithaug, D. E., Hagmeier, L. D., & Haring, N. G. (1977). The relationship between training activities and job placement in vocational education of the severely and profoundly handicapped. AAESPH Review, 2, 89–109.Google Scholar
  40. Mithaug, D. E., Mar, D. K., & Stewart, J. E. (1978). Prevocational assessment and curriculum guide. Seattle: Exceptional Education.Google Scholar
  41. Mithaug, D., Mar, D., Stewart, J., & McCalmon, D. (1980). Assessing prevocational competencies of profoundly, severely, and moderately retarded persons. Journal of the Association for the Severely Handicapped, 5, 270–284.Google Scholar
  42. Mulick, J. A., & Schroeder, S. R. (1980). Research relating to management of antisocial behavior in mentally retarded persons. The Psychological Record, 30, 397–417.Google Scholar
  43. Mulick, J. A., Hoyt, R., Rojahn, J., & Schroeder, S. R. (1978). Reduction of a “nervous habit” in a profoundly retarded youth by increasing toy play. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 9, 381–385.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Nutter, D., & Reid, D. H. (1978). Teaching retarded women a clothing selection skill using community norms. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 11, 475–487.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. O’Brien, F., & Azrin, N. H. (1972a). Symptom reduction by functional displacement in a token economy: A case study. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 3, 205–207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. O’Brien, F., & Azrin, N. H. (1972b). Developing proper mealtime behaviors of the institutionalized retarded. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 5, 389–399.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Pendergrass, V. E. (1972). Timeout from positive reinforcement following persistent, high-rate behavior in retardates. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 5, 85–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Rogers-Warren, A. (1977). Planned change: Ecobehaviorally based interventions. In A. Rogers-Warren & S. R. Warren (Eds.), Ecological perspectives in behavior analysis (pp. 197–210). University Park Press: Baltimore.Google Scholar
  49. Rogers-Warren, A., & Warren, S. F. (1977). The developing ecobehavioral psychology. In A. Rogers-Warren & S. F. Warren (Eds.), Ecological perspectives in behavior analysis (pp. 3–8). Baltimore: University Park Press.Google Scholar
  50. Rollings, J. P., Baumeister, A. A., & Baumeister, A. A. (1977). The use of overcorrection procedures to eliminate the stereotyped behaviors of retarded individuals: An analysis of collateral behaviors and generalization of suppressive effects. Behavior Modification, 1, 29–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Rusch, F. R., & Mithaug, D. E. (1985). Employment education: A systems-analytic approach to transitional competitive programming for the student with severe handicaps. In K. C. Lakin & R. H. Bruininks (Eds.), Strategies for achieving community integration of developmentally disabled citizens (pp. 117–192). Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes.Google Scholar
  52. Rusch, F. R., Weithers, J. A., Menchetti, B. M., & Schutz, R. P. (1980). Social validation of a program to reduce topic repetition in a nonsheltered setting. Education and Training of the Mentally Retarded, 15, 208–215.Google Scholar
  53. Rusch, F. R., Schutz, R. P., & Agran, M. (1982). Validating entry-level survival skills for service occupations: Implications for curriculum development. The Journal of the Association for the Severely Handicapped, 7, 32–41.Google Scholar
  54. Rusch, F. R., Chadsey-Rusch, J., White, D., & Gifford, J. L. (1985). Programs for severely mentally retarded adults: Perspectives and methodologies. In D. Bricker & J. Filler (Eds.), Severe mental retardation: From theory to practice (pp. 119–140). Lancaster, PA: Lancaster Press.Google Scholar
  55. Sajwaj, T., Twardosz, S., & Burke, M. (1972). Side effects of extinction procedures in a remedial preschool. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 5, 163–175.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Schalock, R. L. (1985). Comprehensive community services: A plea for interagency collaboration. In R. H. Bruininks & K. C. Lakin (Eds.), Living and learning in the least restrictive environment (pp. 37–63). Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes.Google Scholar
  57. Schalock, R. L., Karan, O. C., & Harper, R. S. (1980). An evaluation-remediation model for serving people with significant handicaps. Mental Retardation, 18, 231–233.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Schoggen, P. (1978). Ecological psychology and mental retardation. In G. P. Sackett (Ed.), Observing behavior: Vol. 1. Theory and applications in mental retardation (pp. 33–62). Baltimore: University Park Press.Google Scholar
  59. Schroeder, S. R., Rojahn, J., & Mulick, J. A. (1978). Ecobehavioral organization of developmental day care for the chronically self-injurious. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 3, 81–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Schroeder, S. R., Mulick, J. A., & Schroeder, C. S. (1979). Management of severe behavior problems of the retarded. In N. R. Ellis (Ed.), Handbook of Mental Deficiency (2nd ed., pp. 341–366). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  61. Schroeder, S. R., Schroeder, C. S., Rojahn, J., & Mulick, J. A. (1981). Self-injurious behavior: An analysis of behavior management techniques. In J. L. Matson & J. R. McCartney (Eds.), Handbook of behavior modification with the mentally retarded (pp. 61–115). New York: Plenum Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Schutz, R. (1984). The identification of job requisite skills to facilitate the entry of severely handicapped adults into competitive employment settings. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign.Google Scholar
  63. Schutz, R. P., Rusch, F. R., & Lamson, D. S. (1979). Evaluation of an employer’s procedure to eliminate unacceptable behavior on the job. Community Services Forum, 1, 4–5.Google Scholar
  64. Scott, M. (1980). Ecological theory and methods for research in special education. The Journal of Special Education, 4, 279–294.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Smith, M., & Meyers, A. (1979). Telephone skills training for retarded adults: Group and individual demonstrations with and without verbal instruction. American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 83, 581–587.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Snell, M. E. (1979). Higher functioning residents as language trainers of the mentally retarded. Education and Training of the Mentally Retarded, 14, 77–84.Google Scholar
  67. Sowers, J. A., Rusch, F. R., & Hudson, C. (1979). Training a severely retarded young adult to ride the city bus to and from work. AAESPH Review, 4, 15–23.Google Scholar
  68. Spears, D., Rusch, F. R., York, R., & Lilly, M. S. (1981). Training independent arrival behaviors to a severely mentally retarded child. Journal of the Association for the Severely Handicapped, 6, 40–45.Google Scholar
  69. Talkington, L. W., Hall, S. M., & Altman, R. (1971). Communication deficits and aggression in the mentally retarded. American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 76, 235–237.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Tarpley, H. D., & Schroeder, S. R. (1979). Comparison of DRO and DRI on rate of suppression of self-injurious behavior. American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 84, 188–194.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Thurman, S. K. (1977). Congruence of behavioral ecologies: A model for special education. The Journal of Special Education, 11, 329–333.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Van Biervliet, A., Spangler, P. F., & Marshall, A. (1981). An ecobehavioral examination of a simple strategy for increasing mealtime language in residential facilities. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 14, 295–305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Van Houten, R. (1979). Social validation: The evolution of standards of competency for target behaviors. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 12, 581–592.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Voeltz, L. M., & Evans, I. M. (1982). The assessment of behavioral interrelationships in child behavior therapy. Behavioral Assessment, 4, 131–165.Google Scholar
  75. Voeltz, L. M., & Evans, I. M. (1983). Educational Validity: Procedures to evaluate outcomes in programs for severely handicapped learners. The Journal of the Association for the Severely Handicapped, 8, 3–15.Google Scholar
  76. Vogelsberg, T., & Rusch, F. R. (1979). Training three severely handicapped young adults to walk, look, and cross uncontrolled intersections. AAESPH Review, 4, 264–273.Google Scholar
  77. Wahler, R. G. (1975). Some structural aspects of deviant child behavior. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 8, 27–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Wehman, P., Schutz, R., Renzaglia, A., & Karan, O. (1977). The use of positive practice training in work adjustment with two profoundly retarded adolescents. Vocational Evaluation and Work Adjustment Bulletin, 14, 14–22.Google Scholar
  79. Wehman, P., Renzaglia, A., Berry, G., Schutz, R., & Karan, O. (1978). Developing a leisure skill repertoire in severely and profoundly handicapped persons. American Association for the Education of the Severely and Profoundly Handicapped, 3, 162–171.Google Scholar
  80. Willems, E. P. (1974). Behavioral technology and behavioral ecology. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 7, 151–165.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Willems, E. P. (1977). Steps toward an ecobehavioral technology. In A. Rogers-Warren & S. F. Warren (Eds.), Ecological perspectives in behavior analysis (pp. 39–61). Baltimore: University Park Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Windle, C. D., Stewart, E., & Brown, S. J. (1961). Reasons for community failure of retarded patients. American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 66, 213–217.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Wolf, M. (1978). Social validity: The case for subjective measurement or how applied behavior analysis is finding its heart. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 11, 203–214.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Wolfensberger, W. (1972). The principle of normalization in human services. Toronto: National Institute on Mental Retardation.Google Scholar
  85. Young, J. A., & Wincze, J. P. (1974). The effects of the reinforcement of compatible and incompatible behaviors on self-injurious and related behaviors of a profoundly retarded female adult. Behavior Therapy, 5, 614–623.Google Scholar
  86. Youngberg v. Romeo, 50 U.S.L.W. 4681 (1982).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • Janis Chadsey-Rusch
    • 1
  • Frank R. Rusch
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Special EducationUniversity of IllinoisChampaignUSA

Personalised recommendations