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Behavior Modification

Self-Control and Cognitive Procedures
  • Edward S. Shapiro
Part of the Applied Clinical Psychology book series (NSSB)

Abstract

Research evidence has clearly demonstrated that the behavior of mentally retarded persons can be modified using the techniques of behavior management. Specifically, the principles of reinforcement and punishment are quite powerful in effecting change among the variety of academic, behavioral, and vocational problems facing those working with mentally retarded individuals (see Chapters 1 and 2 of this volume). Strategies used to effect changes, however, are for the most part controlled by an external agent such as a teacher, parent, or therapist. Typically, these external agents decide when the targeted subject has met the required contingencies and administered the appropriate consequences. The person learns to behave in the desired way in order to either receive the specific positive reinforcement offered by the external agent or to avoid the aversive consequences that will occur should the undesirable behavior be emitted. Although these procedures are highly effective, they are often found to result in behavior change that is discriminated to the conditions present when the external agent implemented the procedure. In other words, when the external agent or other discriminable stimuli are absent, the behavior change ceases to be present.

Keywords

Apply Behavior Analysis Retarded Child Generalization Task Cognitive Procedure Retarded Individual 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • Edward S. Shapiro
    • 1
  1. 1.School Psychology ProgramLehigh UniversityBethlehemUSA

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