Advertisement

Suicide

  • Stuart Palmer
  • John A. Humphrey

Abstract

Suicide is the intentional, that is, nonaccidental, killing of the self. Hence, suicide and criminal homicide are similar in that death is brought about intentionally, although in the one case the target of the violent act is the self and in the other another person. In some societies, such as Japan and India, suicide has traditionally been institutionalized. In most societies it tends to be individualistic deviance, as does homicide. Whether taking one’s own life is in fact deviance will, of course, depend on the context in which it occurs and whether it is in the line of culturally prescribed duty. The wife who throws herself on the funeral pyre of her husband because custom requires it is not acting in a deviant way. Neither is the soldier who, following orders, goes on a “suicide mission” and never returns.

Keywords

Suicidal Behavior Suicide Rate Social Integration Homicide Rate Social Disorganization 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    David Horton Smith and Linda Hackathorn, “Some Social and Psychological Factors Related to Suicide in Primitive Societies: A Cross-Cultural Comparative Study,” Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior 12(4):195–211, 1982.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    U.S. Bureau of Census, Historical Statistics of the United States, Colonial Times to 1970, Part I (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1975), p. 414.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Andrew F. Henry and James F. Short, Jr., Suicide and Homicide (Glencoe, IL: Free Press, 1954).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Jack P. Gibbs and Walter T. Martin, Status Integration and Suicide (Eugene, OR: University of Oregon Press, 1964).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Jack P. Gibbs and Walter T. Martin, Status Integration and Suicide (Eugene, OR: University of Oregon Press, 1964).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    John L. McIntosh and Barbara L. Jewell, “Sex Difference Trends in Completed Suicides,” Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior 16:16–27, 1986.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ronald Maris, “The Adolescent Suicide Problem,” Suicide and Life-Threatening behavior 15(2):91–109, 1985.Google Scholar
  8. R. H. Seiden and R. P. Freitas, “Shifting Patterns of Deadly Violence,” Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior 10(4):195–209, 1980.Google Scholar
  9. 8.
    Evelyn M. Kitagawa and Philip M. Hauser, Differential Mortality in the United States: A Study in Socioeconomic Epidemiology (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1973), p. 77.Google Scholar
  10. 9.
    Dominigue I. Lambert, Linda B. Bourque, and Jess F. Kraus, “Occupational Status and Suicide,” Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior 14(4):254–269, 1984.Google Scholar
  11. Steven Stack, “Suicide: A Decade Review of the Sociological Literature,” Deviant Behavior 4:41–66, 1982.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 10.
    Elwin H. Powell, “Occupation, Status, and Suicide: Toward a Redefinition of Anomie,” American Sociological Review 23(2): 137, 1958.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 11.
    Warren Breed, “Occupational Mobility and Suicide among White Males,” American Sociological Review 28(2): 179–188, 1963.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 12.
    Henry and Short, op. cit..Google Scholar
  15. 13.
    Martin Gold, “Suicide, Homicide, and the Socialization of Aggression,” The American Journal of Sociology 63(6):651–661, 1958.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 14.
    Ian Gregory, “Studies of Parental Deprivation in Psychiatric Patients,” American Journal of Psychiatry 115(5):432–442, 1958.Google Scholar
  17. 15.
    Theodore L. Dorpat, Joan K. Jackson, and Herbert S. Ripley, “Broken Homes and Attempted and Completed Suicide,” Archives of General Psychiatry 12(2):213–216, 1965.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 16.
    William A. Rushing, “Individual Behavior and Suicide,” in Suicide, ed. Jack P. Gibbs (New York: Harper and Row, 1968), p. 100.Google Scholar
  19. 17.
    William A. Rushing, “Individual Behavior and Suicide,” in Suicide, ed. Jack P. Gibbs (New York: Harper and Row, 1968), p. 100.Google Scholar
  20. 18.
    William A. Rushing, “Individual Behavior and Suicide,” in Suicide, ed. Jack P. Gibbs (New York: Harper and Row, 1968), p. 100.Google Scholar
  21. 19.
    William A. Rushing, “Individual Behavior and Suicide,” in Suicide, ed. Jack P. Gibbs (New York: Harper and Row, 1968), p. 101.Google Scholar
  22. 20.
    For example, Norman L. Farberow and Edwin S. Shneidman, eds. The Cry for Help (New York: Harper and Row, 1968), p. 100.Google Scholar
  23. 21.
    Gerald F. Jacobson and Stephen H. Portuges, “Relation of Marital Separation and Divorce to Suicide: A Report,” Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior 8(4):217–224, 1978.Google Scholar
  24. 22.
    Jack P. Gibbs, “Testing the Theory of Status Integration and Suicide Rates,” American Sociological Review 47(2):227–237, 1982.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 23.
    Edwin S. Shneidman and Norman L. Farberow, “Clues to Suicide,” Public Health Reports 71(1):111, 1959.Google Scholar
  26. 24.
    Rushing, op. cit., p. 98.Google Scholar
  27. 25.
    For example, Jack D. Douglas, The Social Meanings of Suicide (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1967), pp. 283–285, 339.Google Scholar
  28. 26.
    M. L. Farber, Theory of Suicide (New York: Funk and Wagnalls, 1968).Google Scholar
  29. 27.
    David Lester, To Kill Themselves (Springfield, IL: Charles t. Thomas, 1972).Google Scholar
  30. 28.
    David Lester, To Kill Themselves (Springfield, IL: Charles t. Thomas, 1972).Google Scholar
  31. 29.
    Ronald W. Maris, Pathways to Suicide: A Survey of Self-Destructive Behaviors (Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins Press, 1981).Google Scholar
  32. 30.
    Lester, op. cit..Google Scholar
  33. 31.
    Karl A. Menninger, Man Against Himself (New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1938).Google Scholar
  34. 32.
    Herbert Hendin, “The Psychodynamics of Suicide,” in Gibbs, Suicide, pp. 133-145.Google Scholar
  35. 33.
    Louis I. Dublin, Suicide (New York: Ronald Press, 1963).Google Scholar
  36. 34.
    Stuart Palmer, “Characteristics of Suicide in 54 Non-Literate Societies,” Life Threatening Behavior 1(3):178–183, 1971.Google Scholar
  37. 35.
    Dublin, op. cit..Google Scholar
  38. 36.
  39. 37.
    Palmer, op. cit..Google Scholar
  40. 38.
    U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Fourth Special Report to the United States Congress on Alcohol and Health (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1981).Google Scholar
  41. 39.
    J. Roizen, “Estimating Alcohol Involvement in Serious Events,” in National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Alcohol Consumption and Related Problems (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1981).Google Scholar
  42. 40.
    Marc Aarens, Tracy Cameron, Judy Roizen, Ron Roizen, Robin Room, Dan Scheneberk, and Deborah Wingard, Alcohol, Causalities and Crime (Berkeley: University of California, 1978).Google Scholar
  43. 41.
    C. P. Miles, “Conditions Predisposing to Suicide: A Review,” Journal of Nervous and Mental Diseases 164(4):231–246, 1977.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Fifth Special Report to the United States Congress on Alcohol and Health (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1985).Google Scholar
  45. 42.
    William A. Rushing, “Suicide as a Possible Consequence of Alcoholism,” in Deviant Behavior and Social Process, ed. William A. Rushing (Chicago: Rand McNally, 1969).Google Scholar
  46. 43.
    Herbert Hendin, Suicide in America (New York: W. W. Norton, 1982).Google Scholar
  47. 44.
    Alex Pokorny, “Human Violence: A Comparison of Homicide, Aggravated Assault, Suicide, and Attempted Suicide,” Journal of Criminal Law, Criminology, and Police Science 56(4):488–497, 1965.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 45.
    Manfred Guttmacher, The Mind of the Murderer (New York: Grove Press, 1962).Google Scholar
  49. 46.
    Cited by Donald J. West, Homicide Followed by Suicide (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1966), p. 70.Google Scholar
  50. 47.
    Donald J. West, Homicide Followed by Suicide (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1966), p. 2.Google Scholar
  51. 48.
    Donald J. West, Homicide Followed by Suicide (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1966), p. 2.Google Scholar
  52. 49.
    West, op. cit..Google Scholar
  53. 50.
    Marvin E. Wolfgang, Patterns in Criminal Homicide (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1958), p. 273.Google Scholar
  54. 51.
    Marvin E. Wolfgang, Patterns in Criminal Homicide (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1958), p. 276.Google Scholar
  55. 52.
    Marvin E. Wolfgang, Patterns in Criminal Homicide (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1958), p. 277.Google Scholar
  56. 53.
    Marvin E. Wolfgang, Patterns in Criminal Homicide (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1958), p. 278.Google Scholar
  57. 54.
    Marvin E. Wolfgang, Patterns in Criminal Homicide (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1958), p. 278.Google Scholar
  58. 55.
    Marvin E. Wolfgang, Patterns in Criminal Homicide (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1958), p. 278.Google Scholar
  59. 56.
    West, op. cit., p. 46.Google Scholar
  60. 57.
    Emile Durkheim, Suicide, trans. John A. Spaulding and George Simpson (New York: Free Press, 1966).Google Scholar
  61. 58.
    Powell, op. cit..Google Scholar
  62. 59.
    Ibid., p. 139.Google Scholar
  63. 60.
    Gibbs and Martin, op. cit..Google Scholar
  64. 61.
    Jacqueline H. Straus and Murray A. Straus, “Suicide, Homicide, and Social Structure in Ceylon,” American Journal of Sociology 58(5):461–469, 1953.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 62.
    Henry and Short, op. cit..Google Scholar
  66. 63.
    Ibid., p. 18.Google Scholar
  67. 64.
    Robert K. Merton, Social Theory and Social Structure (Glencoe, IL: Free Press, 1957), pp. 131–160.Google Scholar
  68. 65.
    Maurice Halwachs, Les Causes du Suicide (Paris: Alcon, 1930).Google Scholar
  69. 66.
    Ruth S. Cavan, Suicide (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1928).Google Scholar
  70. 67.
    Calvin F. Schmid, “Suicide in Minneapolis, Minnesota: 1928–1932,” American Journal of Sociology 39(1):30–48, 1933.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Calvin F. Schmid, Suicides in Seattle, 1914 to 1925 (Seattle: University of Washington Publications in the Social Sciences, 1928).Google Scholar
  72. 68.
    Robert E. L. Faris, Social Disorganization (New York: Ronald Press, 1948), p. 293.Google Scholar
  73. 69.
    Joan K. Jackson and Ralph Connor, “The Skid Road Alcoholic,” Quarterly Journal of Studies on Alcohol 14(3):468–486, 1953.Google Scholar
  74. 70.
    Breed, op. cit..Google Scholar
  75. 71.
  76. 72.
    Arthur Lewis Wood, “A Socio-Structural Analysis of Murder, Suicide and Economic Crime in Ceylon,” American Sociological Review 26:744–753, 1961.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 73.
    Walter B. Miller, “Lower Class Culture as a Generating Milieu of Gang Delinquency,” Journal of Social Issues 14(3):5–19, 1958.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 74.
    Richard Quinney, The Social Reality of Crime (Boston: Little, Brown, 1970).Google Scholar
  79. 75.
    Thio, Deviant Behavior (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1983).Google Scholar
  80. 76.
    Edwin H. Sutherland and Donald R. Cressey, Criminology 10th ed. (Chicago: Lippincott, 1978).Google Scholar
  81. 77.
    Albert Cohen, Delinquent Boys (Glencoe, IL: Free Press, 1955).Google Scholar
  82. 78.
    Marvin E. Wolfgang and Franco Ferracuti, The Subculture of Violence (New York: Barnes and Noble, 1967).Google Scholar
  83. 79.
    See, however, John A. Humphrey and Stuart Palmer, “Homicide and Suicide in North Carolina: An Emerging Subculture of Self-Violence?” in Violent Crime: Historical and Contemporary Issues, eds. James A. Inciardi and Anne E. Pottieger (Beverly Hills, CA: Sage, 1978), pp. 99–110.Google Scholar
  84. 80.
    For discussions of the societal reaction approach, see especially Thomas Scheff, Being Mentally III (Chicago: Aldine, 1966).Google Scholar
  85. Edwin M. Lemert, Human Deviance, Social Problems and Social Control (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1967).Google Scholar
  86. Edwin M. Schur, Labeling Deviant Behavior (New York: Harper and Row, 1971).Google Scholar
  87. 81.
    Douglas, The Social Meanings of Suicide.Google Scholar
  88. 82.
    David P. Phillips, ps, “The Influence of Suggestion on Suicide: Substantive and Theoretical Implications of the Werther Effect,” American Sociological Review 39(3):340–354, 1974.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 83.
    Gibbs, op. cit., p. 17.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stuart Palmer
    • 1
  • John A. Humphrey
    • 2
  1. 1.University of New HampshireDurhamUSA
  2. 2.University of North CarolinaGreensboroUSA

Personalised recommendations