Advertisement

Criminal Homicide

  • Stuart Palmer
  • John A. Humphrey

Abstract

The mores of a society are those customs and values which its members believe must be followed to ensure the society’s survival. Crimes are those deviant acts which violate the mores, which are believed to threaten the social fabric. All societies, literate and nonliterate, recognize crimes in this way. In the large, literate societies, criminal law is a codification of the given society’s mores combined with specific punishments for violations.

Keywords

Relative Deprivation Homicide Rate Federal Bureau Success Goal Homicidal Offender 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Demographic Yearbook (New York: United Nations, 1984).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Stuart Palmer, The Violent Society (New Haven, CT: College and University Press, 1972), p. 30.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Data in this and the following paragraph are from Federal Bureau of Investigation, Crime in the United States (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1984; and 1988).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Austin L. Porterfield and Robert H. Talbert, with the assistance of Herbert R. Mundhenke, Crime, Suicide, and Social Weil-Being (Fort Worth, TX: Leo Potishman Foundation, 1948).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Marvin E. Wolfgang and Franco Ferracuti, The Subculture of Violence (London: Tavistock, 1967); also, Federal Bureau of Investigation, op. cit.; also, Palmer, op. cit..Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Palmer, op. cit.; also, Wolfgang and Ferracuti, op. cit.; also, Federal Bureau of Investigation, op. cit.; also, Marc Reidel, Margaret A. Zahn, and Lois F. Mock, The Nature and Patterns of American Homicide (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1985).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Federal Bureau of Investigation, op. cit..Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Marc Reidel, Margaret A. Zahn, and Lois F. Mock, The Nature and Patterns of American Homicide (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1988, p. 12.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Centers for Disease Control, “Homicide Among Young Black Males: United States, 1970–1982,” Morbidity Mortality Weekly Report 34(41):629–633, 1985.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    M. F. X. Jeff, “Why Black-on-Black Homicide,” Urban League Review 6:25–34, 1981.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    William B. Harvey, “Homicide Among Young Black Adults: Life in the Subculture of Exasperation,” in Homicide Among Black Americans, ed. Darnell F. Hawkins (Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 1986).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    U.S. Public Health Service, Vital Statistics of the U.S., 1980, Vol. 2, Mortality, Part A. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1985.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    As examples, John L. Gillin, The Wisconsin Prisoner (Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press, 1946).Google Scholar
  14. Stuart Palmer, A Study of Murder (New York: Crowell, 1960).Google Scholar
  15. 14.
    Palmer, The Violent Society, p. 54.Google Scholar
  16. 15.
    Palmer, A Study of Murder, op. cit..Google Scholar
  17. 16.
  18. 17.
  19. 18.
    Wolfgang and Ferracuti, op. cit. For a closely related analysis, see Albert Bandura and Richard H. Walters, Adolescent Aggression (New York: Ronald Press, 1959).Google Scholar
  20. 19.
    Palmer, A Study of Murder.Google Scholar
  21. 20.
    Margaret K. Bacon, Irvin L. Child, and Herbert Barry III, “A Cross-Cultural Study of Correlates of Crime,” Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology 66(4):291–300, 1963.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 21.
    Palmer, A Study of Murder.Google Scholar
  23. 22.
  24. 23.
    Marvin E. Wolfgang and Margaret A. Zahn, “Homicide: Behavioral Aspects,” in Encyclopedia of Crime and Justice, ed. S. H. Kadish (New York: Free Press, 1983).Google Scholar
  25. 24.
    Victoria L. Swigert and Ronald A. Farrell, “Patterns in Criminal Homicide: Theory and Research,” in Murder, Inequality, and the Law, ed. Victoria L. Swigert and Ronald A. Farrell (Lexington, MA: Heath, 1975), p. 193.Google Scholar
  26. 25.
    Austin L. Porterfield, “Suicide and Crime in the Social Structure of an Urban Setting,” American Sociological Review 17(3):341–349, 1952.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 26.
    Edward Green and Russell P. Wakefield, “Patterns of Middle and Upper Class Homicide,” Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology 70(2):172–181, 1979.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 27.
    Erik Erikson, Identity: Youth and Crisis (New York: Norton, 1968), pp. 19–20.Google Scholar
  29. 28.
    Wolfgang and Ferracuti, op. cit.; also, Donald E. West, Murder Followed by Suicide (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1965).Google Scholar
  30. 29.
    Barry J. McGurk, “Personality Types Among ‘Normal’ Homicides,” British Journal of Criminology, 18(1):146–161, 1978.Google Scholar
  31. 30.
    Federal Bureau of Investigation, Crime in the United States, 1988.Google Scholar
  32. 31.
    British Home Office, Criminal Statistics, England and Wales, 1975 (London: Her Majesty’s Stationary Office, 1976).Google Scholar
  33. 32.
    Marvin E. Wolfgang, Patterns in Criminal Homicide (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1958).Google Scholar
  34. 33.
    Patrick W. O. Carroll and James A. Mercy, “Patterns and Recent Trends in Black Homicide,” in Homicide and Black America, ed. Darnell F. Hawkins (Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 1986).Google Scholar
  35. 34.
    Marvin E. Wolfgang, Patterns in Criminal Homicide.Google Scholar
  36. 35.
    Stuart Palmer, “Characteristics of Homicide and Suicide Victims in Forty Non-Literate Societies,” in Victimology: A New Focus, Vol. 4, ed. Israel Drappin and Emilio Viano (Lexington, MA: Heath, 1975), pp. 43–53.Google Scholar
  37. 36.
    Alex D. Pokorny, “Human Violence: A Comparison of Homicide, Aggravated Assault, Suicide, and Attempted Suicide,” Journal of Criminal Law, Criminology, and Police Science 56(4):488–497, 1965; also, Wolfgang, Patterns in Criminal Homicide.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 37.
    Wolfgang and Zahn, in S. H. Kadish (ed.), Encyclopedia of Crime and Justice.Google Scholar
  39. 38.
    Federal Bureau of Investigation, Crime in the United States, 1988.Google Scholar
  40. 39.
    Patrick W. O. Carroll and James A. Mercy, “Patterns and Recent Trends in Black Homicide,” in Darnell F. Hawkins, ed. Homicide in Black America.Google Scholar
  41. 40.
    Palmer, “Characteristics of Homicide and Suicide Victims in Forty Non-Literate Societies.”.Google Scholar
  42. 41.
    Reidel, Zahn, and Mock, op. cit.; and J. H. Wright, P. H. Rossi, and K. Daly, Under the Gun: Weapons, Crime and Violence in America (New York: Aldine, 1983).Google Scholar
  43. 42.
    Wolfgang, Patterns in Criminal Homicide.Google Scholar
  44. 43.
    Reidel, Zahn, and Mock, op. cit..Google Scholar
  45. 44.
    University of California at Los Angeles, Centers for Disease Control: The Epidemiology of Homicide in the City of Los Angeles, 1970–1979, Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Services, Centers for Disease Control, August 1985; also P. W. Haberman and M. M. Baden, Alcohol, Other Drugs and Violent Death (New York: Oxford University Press, 1978).Google Scholar
  46. Centers for Disease Control, “Alcohol and Violent Death: Erie County, New York, 1973–1983,” Morbidity Mortality Weekly Report 33(17):226–227, 1984.Google Scholar
  47. 45.
    Paul Bohannan, ed., African Homicide and Suicide (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1960), p. 249.Google Scholar
  48. 46.
    Edwin H. Sutherland and Donald R. Cressey, Criminology, 10th ed. (Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1978).Google Scholar
  49. 47.
    Albert Cohen, Delinquent Boys (Glencoe, IL: Free Press, 1954).Google Scholar
  50. 48.
    Richard A. Cloward and Lloyd E. Ohlin, Delinquency and Opportunity (Glencoe, IL: Free Press, 1960).Google Scholar
  51. 49.
    Wolfgang and Ferracuti, op. cit..Google Scholar
  52. 50.
    Sheldon Hackney, “Southern Violence,” in The History of Violence in America, eds. Hugh Davis Graham and Ted Robert Gurr (New York: Bantam, 1969), pp. 505–527.Google Scholar
  53. 51.
    Raymond H. Gastil, “Homicide and a Regional Culture of Violence,” American Sociological Review 36(3):412–427, 1971.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 52.
    Colin Loftin and Robert H. Hill, “Regional Subculture and Homicide: An Examination of the Gastel-Hackney Thesis,” American Sociological Review 39(5):714–724, 1974.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 53.
    Judith H. Blau and Peter Blau, “The Costs of Inequality: Metropolitan Structure and Violent Crime,” American Sociological Review 47(1):114–129, 1982.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 54.
    Steven F. Messner, “Poverty, Inequality, and the Urban Homicide Rate,” Criminology 20(1):103–114, 1982CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Steven S. Messner, “Regional Differences in the Economic Correlates of the Urban Homicide Rate,” Criminology 22(4):477–488, 1983.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 55.
    L. Huff-Corzine, Jay Corzine, and D. Moore, “Southern Exposure: Deciphering the South’s Influence on Homicide Rates,” Social Forces 64(4):906–924, 1986.Google Scholar
  59. 56.
    For a reexamination of Blau and Blau and Messner, see Kirk Williams, “Economic Sources of Homicide: Re-estimating the Effects of Poverty and Inequality,” American Sociological Review 49(2):283–289, 1984.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 57.
    Thorsten Sellin, Culture Conflict and Crime (New York: Social Science Research Council, 1938).Google Scholar
  61. 58.
    Lewis Coser, Continuities in the Study of Social Conflict (New York: Free Press, 1967).Google Scholar
  62. 59.
    Walter B. Miller, “Lower Class Culture as a Generating Milieu of Gang Delinquency,” Journal of Social Issues 14(3):5–19, 1958.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 60.
    Richard Quinney, The Social Reality of Crime (Boston: Little, Brown, 1970).Google Scholar
  64. 61.
    Alex Thio, Deviant Behavior (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1978).Google Scholar
  65. 62.
    Emile Durkheim, Suicide, Trans. John A. Spaulding and George Simpson (Glencoe, IL: Free Press, 1951).Google Scholar
  66. 63.
    For an expanded statement of the original article, see Robert K. Merton, Social Theory and Social Structure (Glencoe, IL: Free Press, 1957).Google Scholar
  67. 64.
    Andrew F. Henry and James F. Short, Jr., Suicide and Homicide (New York: Free Press, 1954).Google Scholar
  68. 65.
    Jacqueline Straus and Murray Straus, “Suicide, Homicide, and Social Structure in Ceylon,” American Journal of Sociology 58(5):461–469, 1953.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 66.
    Edwin M. Lemert, Human Deviance, Social Problems, and Social Control (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1967).Google Scholar
  70. 67.
    Edwin M. Lemert, Human Deviance, Social Problems, and Social Control (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1967).Google Scholar
  71. Edwin M. Schur, Labeling Deviant Behavior (New York: Harper and Row, 1971).Google Scholar
  72. 68.
    Palmer, The Violent Society.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stuart Palmer
    • 1
  • John A. Humphrey
    • 2
  1. 1.University of New HampshireDurhamUSA
  2. 2.University of North CarolinaGreensboroUSA

Personalised recommendations