• Michael Feuerstein
  • Elise E. Labbé
  • Andrzej R. Kuczmierczyk


Pain is a prevalent and costly health problem. When pain persists beyond the “natural” course of an illness, extends beyond the typical time required for an injury to heal, or is associated with a progressive illness such as arthritis, the pain is designated chronic. It has been estimated that 86 million Americans suffer with some form of chronic pain (Bonica, 1979). Bonica estimates the cost of chronic pain in the United States at $60 billion annually. Such costs are related to hospitalization, outpatient treatment, medication, surgery, loss of work productivity, loss of income, disability payments, and litigation settlements. The social impact of pain is also considerable.


Chronic Pain Pain Experience Migraine Patient Migraine Headache Pain Behavior 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michael Feuerstein
    • 1
  • Elise E. Labbé
    • 2
  • Andrzej R. Kuczmierczyk
    • 1
  1. 1.University of Rochester School of Medicine and DentistryRochesterUSA
  2. 2.University of Miami School of MedicineMiamiUSA

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