Effects of Coping and Noncoping with Stressful Events on the Immune System

  • Wolfgang H. Vogel


All men and animals are continuously exposed to stressful events (stressors) which can affect and change the homeostasis of an organism. A change in homeostasis is usually called stress. Although man must have encountered stressful events and experienced stress from prehistoric times, a scientific concept of stress did not emerge until relatively late in history. Milestones in early stress research include the recognition of the “milieu interior” by C. Bernard as well as the response of the sympathetic-adrenal medullary system (epinephrine) by W.B. Cannon (1) and that of the pituitary-adrenal cortical system (steroids) by H. Selye (2) to stressful events.


Stressful Event Coping Behavior Inescapable Shock Escapable Shock Aversive Situation 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • Wolfgang H. Vogel
    • 1
  1. 1.Departments of Pharmacology and Psychiatry and Human Behavior Jefferson Medical CollegeThomas Jefferson UniversityPhiladelphiaUSA

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