Myology of Hystricognath Rodents: An Analysis of Form, Function, and Phylogeny

  • Charles A. Woods
  • John W. Hermanson
Conference paper
Part of the NATO Advanced Science Institutes (ASI) Series book series (NSSA, volume 92)


Muscles have been used as valuable morphological characters in a number of analyses of the phylogenetic relationships of rodents and other mammals (see literature cited in Rinker, 1954; Klingener, 1964; Woods, 1972). The location, innervation, size, shape, number of parts, relative position, presence or absence, and even function of muscles have been used to establish the phylogenetic relationships of various rodent taxa. While comparisons of the form of muscles go back to the time of Vesalius (1543), and Tyson (1699) used muscles in his comparison of various primates, most early works were mainly concerned with descriptive myology. It was not until the great flowering of comparative anatomy in the middle of the last century that careful comparative analyses of musculature were used to formulate hypotheses of phylogenetic relationships.


High Taxonomic Level Dental Morphology Postcranial Skeleton Pocket Gopher Dental Data 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Adams, L.A. 1919. A memoir on the phylogeny of the jaw muscles in recent and fossil vertebrates. Annals N.Y. Acad. Sci. 28:51–166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Appleton, A.B. 1928. The muscles and nerves of the post-axial region of the tetrapod thigh. J. Anat. 62:364–438.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Aristov, A.A. 1981. Short muscles of the hand in the Murinae (Rodentia, Muridae). Zool. Zhur 60(11):1675–1682.Google Scholar
  4. Becht, G. 1953. Comparative biologic-anatomical researches on mastication in some mammals. Proc. Ned. Akad. Wet. 56:508–527.Google Scholar
  5. Berman, S.L. 1979. Convergent evolution in the hind limb of bipedal rodents. Doctoral Dissertation, Univ. Pittsburgh. 302 pp.Google Scholar
  6. Bock, W.J. 1981. Functional-adaptive analysis in evolutionary classification. Amer. Zool. 21:5–20.Google Scholar
  7. Bryant, M.D. 1945. Phylogeny of the Nearctic Sciuridae. Amer. Midl. Nat. 33(2):257–390.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bugge, J. 1974. The cephalic arteries of hystricomorph rodents. Zool. Soc. Lond. Symposium 34:61–78. Acta Anat. suppl. 62, 87:1-160.Google Scholar
  9. Byrd, K.E. 1981. Mandibular movement and muscle activity during mastication in the guinea pig (Cavia porcellus). J. Morph. 170:147–169.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Carleton, M.D. 1984. Introduction to rodents. In: Orders and Families of Recent Mammals of the World, S. Anderson and J.K. Jones (eds.), pp. 255–265, Wiley and Sons, New York.Google Scholar
  11. Carleton, M.D. and Musser, G.G. 1984. Muroid rodents. In: Orders and Families of Recent Mammals of the World, S. Anderson and J.K. Jones (eds.), pp. 289–379, Wiley and Sons, New York.Google Scholar
  12. Cheng, C. 1955. The development of the shoulder region of the opossum, Didelphis virginiana, with special reference to the musculature. J. Morph. 97:415–471.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Cooper, G. and Schiller, A.L. 1975. Anatomy of the guinea pig. Harvard University Press, Cambridge. 417 pp.Google Scholar
  14. Corbet, G.B. and Hill, J.E. 1980. A world list of mammalian species. British Museum (Natural History). 226 pp.Google Scholar
  15. Cracraft, J. 1981. The use of functional and adaptive criteria in phylogenetic systematics. Amer. Zool. 21:21–36.Google Scholar
  16. Cracraft, J. 1983. Cladistic analysis and vicariance biogeography. Amer. Scien. 71(3):273–281.Google Scholar
  17. Doran, G.A. and Baggett, H. 1971. A structural and functional classification of mammalian tongues. J. Mamm. 52:427–429.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Dynowski, J. 1974. Comparative studies on the muscles of the limbs in some species of Rodentia. Acta Theriol. 19(8): 107–142.Google Scholar
  19. Enders, R.K. 1934. The panniculus carnosus in an octodont rodent. Anat. Rec. 59(2):153–156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Forster, A. 1928–1929. La crete en “s” du maxillaire inferieur chez certains rongeurs. Etude de specialisation particuliere du tissu osseux. Arch. Anat. Hist. Embr., Strasbourg 10: 327–346.Google Scholar
  21. Fry, J.F. 1961. Musculature and innervation of the pelvis and hind limb of the mountain beaver. J. Morph. 109:173–197.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Gorniak, G.C. 1977. Feeding in golden hamsters, Mesocricetus auratus. J. Morph. 154:427–458.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Grand, T.I. and Eisenberg, J.F. 1982. On the affinities of the Dinomyidae. Sauget. Mitteilungen 30:151–157.Google Scholar
  24. Greene, E.C. 1935. Anatomy of the rat. Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc. (N.S.) 27:1–370.Google Scholar
  25. George, W. and Wier, B.J. 1974. Hystricomorph chromosomes. Zool. Soc. Lond. Symposium 34:79–108.Google Scholar
  26. Hiiemae, K.M. 1971. The structure and function of the jaw muscles in the rat (Rattus norvegicus L.). III. The mechanics of the muscles. Zool. J. Linn. Soc. 50:111–132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hiiemae, K.M. 1978. Mammalian mastication: A review of the activity of the jaw muscles and the movements they produce in chewing. In: Development Function and Evolution of teeth, P.M. Butler and K.A. Joysey (eds.), pp. 359–398, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  28. Hiiemae, K. and Houston, W.J.B. 1971. The structure and function in the jaw muscles in the rat (Rattus norvegicus L.). I. Their anatomy and internal architecture. Zool. J. Linn. Soc. 50:75–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Hill, J.E. 1934. The homology of the presemimembranosus muscle in some rodents. Anat. Rec. 59:311–313.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Hill, J.E. 1937. Morphology of the pocket gopher mammalian genus Thomomys. Univ. Calif. Publ. Zool. 42(2):81–171.Google Scholar
  31. House, E.L. 1953. A myology of the pharyngeal region of the albino rat. Anat. Rec. 116:363–378.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Howell, A.B. 1926. Anatomy of the Woodrat. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore. 225 pp.Google Scholar
  33. Howell, A.B. 1932. The saltatorial rodent Dipodomys: The functional and comparative anatomy of its muscular and osseous systems. Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts and Sciences 67(10):377–536.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Howell, A.B. 1936. The phylogenetic arrangement of the muscular system. Anat. Record 66:295–316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Husson, A.M. 1978. The Mammals of Suriname. E.J. Brill, Leiden. 569 pp.Google Scholar
  36. Jones, C.L. 1979. The morphogenesis of the thigh of the mouse with special reference to tetrapod muscle homologies. J. Morph. 162(2):275–309.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Kesner, M.H. 1980. Functional morphology of the masticatory musculature of the rodent subfamily Microtinae. J. Morph. 165:205–222.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Klingener, D.J. 1964. The comparative myology of four dipodoid rodents (Genus Zapus, Napeozapus, Sicista, and Jaculus). Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Mich. 124:1–100.Google Scholar
  39. Klingener, D.J. 1984. Gliroid and dipodoid rodents. In: Orders and Families of Recent Mammals of the World, S. Anderson and J.K. Jones (eds.), pp. 381–388, Wiley and Sons, New York.Google Scholar
  40. Kupper, W. 1970. Der Kehlkopf des afrikanischen Springhasen, Pedetes capensis. Z. Wiss. Zool. 181:140–178.Google Scholar
  41. Langworthy, O.R. 1925. A morphological study of the panniculus carnosus and its genetical relationship to the pectoral musculature in rodents. Amer. J. Anat. 35:283–302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. McEvoy, J.S. 1982. Comparative myology of the pectoral and pelvic appendages of the North American porcupine (Erethizon dorsatum) and the prehensile-tailed porcupine (Coendou prehensilis). Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 173(4):337–421.Google Scholar
  43. Meinertz, T. 1941. Das oberflächliche facialisgebiet der Nager. Zool. Jahrb., Abt. für Anat. und Ontogenie der Tiere 67: 119–270.Google Scholar
  44. Meinertz, T. 1944. Das superfizielle Facialisgebiet der Nager VII. Die hystricomorphen Nager. Zeit. für Anat. und Entwick-lungs-geschichte 113:1–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Merriam, C.H. 1895. Monographic revision of the pocket gophers family Geomyidae (exclusive of the species of Thomomys). North Amer. Fauna 8:1–258.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Muller, A. 1933. Die Kaumuskulatur des Hydrochoerus capybara und ihre Bedeutung für die Formgestaltung des Schadeis. Morph. Jahrb. 72:1–59.Google Scholar
  47. Patterson, B. and Wood, A.W. 1982. Rodents from the Deseadan Oligocene of Bolivia and the relationships of the Caviomorpha. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard Univ. 149(7):371–543.Google Scholar
  48. Parsons, F.G. 1894. On the myology of the sciuromorphine and hystricomorphine rodents. Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1894: 251–296.Google Scholar
  49. Parsons, F.G. 1896. Myology of Rodents-Part II. Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1896:159–192.Google Scholar
  50. Ray, C.E. 1958. Fusion of cervical vertebrae in the Erethizontidae and Dinomyidea. Breviora Mus. Comp. Zool., Harvard Univ. 97:1–11 + 2 figs.Google Scholar
  51. Reig, O.A. and Useche, M. 1976. Diversidad cariotipica y sistematica en poplaciones Venezolanas de Proechimys (Rodentia, Echimyidae), con datos adicionales sobre poplaciones de Peru y Colombia. Acta Cient. Venezolana 27:132–140.Google Scholar
  52. Riley, M.A. (in press). An analysis of masticatory form and function in three mustelids (Martes americana, Lutra canadensis, Enhydra lutris). J. Mamm.Google Scholar
  53. Rinker, G.C. 1954. The comparative myology of the mammalian genera Sigmodon, Oryzomys, Neotoma, and Peromyscus (Cricetinae), with remarks on their intergeneric relationships. Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Mich., 83:1–124.Google Scholar
  54. Rinker, G.C. 1963. A comparative myological study of three subgenera of Peromyscus. Occ. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. Mich., 632:1–18.Google Scholar
  55. Rinker, G.C. and Hooper, E.T. 1950. Notes on the cranial musculature of two subgenera of Reithrodontomys (harvest mice). Occ. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. Mich., 528:1–11.Google Scholar
  56. Sarich, V.M. and Cronin, J.E. 1980. South American mammal molecular systematics, evolutionary clocks, and continental drift. In: Evolutionary Biology of the New World Monkeys and Continental Drift, R.L. Ciochon and A.B. Chiarelli (eds.), pp. 399–421, Plenum Press, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Sharma, D.R. and Sivaram, S. 1959. On the hyoid region of the Indian gerbils. Mammalia, 23:149–167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Sivaram, S. and Sharma, D.R. 1970. The hyoid complex of the porcupine Hystrix leucura. Saugetier. Mitteil., 18:52–61.Google Scholar
  59. Sprague, J.M. 1941. A study of the hyoid apparatus of the Cricetinae. J. Mamm., 22:296–310.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Sykes, L.R., McCann, W.R. and Kafka, A.L. 1982. Motion of Caribbean plate during last 7 million years and implications for earlier Cenozoic movements. J. Geoph. Res., 87:10656–10676.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Szalay, F.S. and Decker, R.L. 1974. Origins, evolution, and function of the pes in the Eocene Adapidae (Lemuriformes, Primates). In: Primate Locomotion, F.A. Jenkins Jr. (ed.), pp. 239–259 Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  62. Tullberg, T. 1899. Ueber das system der Nagethiere: eine phylogenetische studie. Nov. Act. Reg. Soc. Sci. Upsal, Ser. 3, 18:1–514.Google Scholar
  63. Turnbull, W.D. 1970. Mammalian masticatory apparatus. Fieldiana: Geol., 18:148–356.Google Scholar
  64. Tyson, E. 1699. Orang-outang; sive, Homo sylvestris; or, The anatomy of a pygmy compared with that of a monkey, an ape, and a man. London. pp. 12, 108, 55.Google Scholar
  65. Van Vendeloo, N.H. 1953. On the correlation between the masticatory muscles and the skull structure in the muskrat, Ondatra zibethica. Koninkl. Nederl. Akad. Wetenschapen, Proc. Series C., 56:116–127, 265-277.Google Scholar
  66. Vanzolini, P.E. and Guimaraes, L.R. 1955. South American land mammals and their lice. Evol., 9:345–347.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Varona, L.S. 1974. Catalogo de los mamiferos vivientes y extinguidos de las Antillas. Instit. Zool., Acad. Cienc. Cuba, 139 pp.Google Scholar
  68. Vesalius, A. 1543. De Humani Corporis Fabrica. Basel.Google Scholar
  69. Weijs, W.A. 1973. Morphology of the muscles of mastication in the albino rat, Rattus norvegicus (Berkenhout, 1769). Acta Morphol. Neerl. Scand., 11:321–340.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Weijs, W.A. 1975. Mandibular movements of the albino rat during feeding. J. Morph., 145:107–124.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Wiley, E.O. 1975. Karl R. Popper, systematics and classification: A reply to Walter Bock and other evolutionary taxonomists. Syst. Zool. 24-233-242.Google Scholar
  72. Wilkins, K.T. and Woods, C.A. 1983. Modes of mastication in pocket gophers. J. Mamm. 64(4):636–641.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Wood, A.E. 1983. The radiation of the Order Rodentia in the southern continents: The dates, numbers and sources of the invasions. Schriftenr, Geol. Wiss. Berlin, 19/20:381–394.Google Scholar
  74. Wood, A.E. and Patterson, B. 1959. The rodents of the Deseadan Oligocene of Patagonia and the beginnings of South American rodent evolution. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., Harvard Univ., 120(3):282–428.Google Scholar
  75. Woods, C.A. 1972. Comparative myology of jaw, hyoid, and pectoral appendicular regions of New and Old World hystricomorph rodents. Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 147:117–198.Google Scholar
  76. Woods, C.A. 1975. The hyoid, laryngeal and pharyngeal regions of bathyergid and other selected rodents. J. Morph., 147:229–250.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Woods, C.A. 1982. The history and classification of South American hystricognath rodents: Reflections on the far away and long ago. In: Mammalian Biology in South America, M.A. Mares and H.H. Genoways (eds.), pp. 377-392, Univ. Pittsburgh.Google Scholar
  78. Woods, C.A. 1984. Hystricognath rodents. In: Orders and Families of Recent Mammals of the World, S. Anderson and J.K. Jones (eds.), pp. 389–446, Wiley and Sons, New York.Google Scholar
  79. Woods, C.A. 1985. Adaptive radiation of capromyid rodents II: New taxa from Hispaniola, and the evolution and systematics of Antillean capromyids (Mammalia: Capromyidae). Bull. Florida State Mus., Biol. Sci.Google Scholar
  80. Woods, C.A. and Howland, E.B. 1977. The skin musculature of hystricognath and other selected rodents. Zbl. Vet. Med. Comp. Anat. Hist. Embryol., 6:240–264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Woods, C.A. and Howland, E.B. 1979. Adaptive radiation of capromyid rodents: Anatomy of the masticatory apparatus. J. Mamm., 60(1):95–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • Charles A. Woods
    • 1
    • 2
  • John W. Hermanson
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Emory UniversityAtlantaUSA
  2. 2.Florida State MuseumGainesvilleUSA

Personalised recommendations