Broadening Research on Developmental Risk

Implications from Studies of Vulnerable and Stress-Resistant Children
  • Norman Garmezy
Part of the Topics in Developmental Psychobiology book series (TDP)


Risk research, with its roots in epidemiology, is concerned with the identification of factors that accentuate or inhibit disease and deficiency states, and the processes that underlie them. Risk studies run the gamut from individual case histories to cross-sectional, and short-term and lengthier longitudinal investigations. The studies traverse the entire life span from birth to old age, with foci that include a broad range of risk factors. These include etiological studies emphasizing potential biological and behavioral precursors; personal positive and negative predispositional attributes; genetic and environmental influences on disorder; the actualizing power of stressful experiences; the ameliorating force of identifiable “protective” factors; the study of coping patterns, including their origins, development, and situational contexts; and the evaluation of outcomes ranging from signs of severe biobehavioral and social deficits to patterns of resilience and adaptation amid disadvantage.


Open Heart Surgery Handicapped Child Continuous Performance Test Hyperactive Child Risk Research 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Beardslee, W. R., Bemporad, J. Keller, M. B., & Klerman, G. L. (1983). Children of parents with major affective disorders: A review. American Journal of Psychiatry, 140, 825–832.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Block, J. Lives through time. (1971). Berkeley, CA: Bancroft Books.Google Scholar
  3. Block, J. H., & Block, J. (1980). The role of ego-control and ego-resiliency in the organization of behavior. In W. A. Collins (Ed.), Development of cognition, affect, and social relations: The Minnesota symposium on child psychology (Vol. 13). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  4. Charlesworth, W. R., LaFreniere, P., Nemeck, D., & Clark, P. (1980). Asking and answering questions: Observations of preschoolers and their teachers in various sized lesson groups. Unpublished paper. Minneapolis, MN: Institute of Child Development, University of Minnesota.Google Scholar
  5. Charlesworth, W. R., & Spiker, D. (1975). An ethological approach to observation in learning settings. In R. A. Weinberg & F. W. Wood (Eds.), Observations of pupils and teachers in mainstream and special education: Alternative strategies. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota.Google Scholar
  6. Garmezy, N. (1985). Stress-resistant children: The search for protective factors. In J. E. Stevenson (Ed.), Recent research in developmental psychopathology. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, Book Supplemental No. 4. Oxford: Pergamon Press.Google Scholar
  7. Garmezy, N., & Devine, V. (1985). Project Competence: The Minnesota studies of children vulnerable to psychopathology. In N. Watt, E. J. Anthony, L. C. Wynne, & J. E. Rolf (Eds.), Children at risk for schizophrenia. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press.Google Scholar
  8. Garmezy, N., Masten, A. S., & Tellegen, A. (1984). The study of stress and competence in children: A building block for developmental psychopathology. Child Development, 55, 97–111.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Garmezy, N., & Rutter, M. (1985). Acute reactions to stress. In M. Rutter & L. Hersov (Eds.), Child psychiatry: Modern approaches (2nd ed.). Oxford: Blackwell Scientific Publications.Google Scholar
  10. Garmezy, N., & Tellegren, A. (1984). Studies of stress-resistant children: Methods, variables, and preliminary findings. In F. Morrison, C. Lord, & D. Keating (Eds.), Advances in applied developmental psychology (Vol. 1). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  11. McNeil, T. F., Kaij, L. Malmquist-Larsson, A., Naslund, B., Persson-Blennow, I., McNeil, N., & Blennow, G. (1983). Offspring of women with nonorganic psychoses. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 68, 234–250.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Marcus, J., Auerbach, J., Wilkinson, L., Maeir, S., Mark, A., & Peles, V. (in press). Infants at risk for schizophrenia: The Jerusalem infant development study. In N. F. Watt, E.]. Anthony, L. C. Wynne, & J. Rolf (Eds), Children at risk for schizophrenia. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press.Google Scholar
  13. Nuechterlein, K. H. (1983). Signal detection in vigilance tasks and behavioral attributes among offspring and schizophrenic mothers and among hyperactive children. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 92, 4–28.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. O’Dougherty, M. M. (1981). The relationship between early risk status and later competence and adaptation in children who survive severe heart defects. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota.Google Scholar
  15. O’Dougherty, M., Wright, F. S., Garmezy, N., Loewenson, R. B., & Torres, F. (1983). Later competence and adaptation in infants who survive severe heart defects. Child Development, 54, 1129–1142.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Patterson, G. R. (1982). Coercive family process. Eugene, OR: Castalia.Google Scholar
  17. Pavenstedt, E. (1965). A comparison of the child-rearing environment of upper-lower and very low-lower class families. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 35, 89–98.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Pavenstedt, E. (1967). The drifters: Children of disorganized lower-class families. Boston: Little, Brown & Co.Google Scholar
  19. Raison, S. B. (1982). Coping behavior of mainstreamed physically handicapped students. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota.Google Scholar
  20. Robins, L. N. (1966). Deviant children grown up. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins.Google Scholar
  21. Rutter, M. (1979). Protective factors in children’s responses to stress and disadvantage. In M. W. Kent & J. E. Rolf (Eds.), Primary prevention of psychopathology (Vol. 3). Hanover, NH: Univ. Press of New England.Google Scholar
  22. Sameroff, A. J., Seifer, R., & Zax, M. (1982). Early development of children at risk for emotional disorder. Monographs of the Society for Child Development, 47(7, Serial No. 199).Google Scholar
  23. Schaffer, H. R. (1964). The too-cohesive family: A form of group pathology. International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 10, 266–275.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Silverstein, P. R. (1982). Coping and adaptation in families of physically handicapped school children. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN.Google Scholar
  25. Wallerstein, J. S., & Kelley, J. B. (1980). Surviving the breakup. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  26. Watt, N., Anthony, E. J., Wynne, L. C., & Rolf, J. (Eds.). (1984). Children at risk for schizophrenia. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press.Google Scholar
  27. Weissman, M. M. (1979). Depressed parents and their children: Implications for prevention. In J. D. Noshpitz (Ed.), Basic handbook of child psychiatry (Vol. 4). New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  28. Werner, E. E., & Smith, R. S. (1982). Vulnerable but invincible: A study of resilient children. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  29. West, D. J., & Farrington, D. P. (1973). Who becomes delinquent? London: Heinemann.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • Norman Garmezy
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of MinnesotaMinneapolisUSA

Personalised recommendations