Advertisement

Shyness pp 47-60 | Cite as

The Measurement of Shyness

  • Stephen R. Briggs
  • Thomas G. Smith
Part of the Emotions, Personality, and Psychotherapy book series (EPPS)

Abstract

Shyness is not unlike many psychological constructs in that it connotes a rich cluster of behaviors, cognitions, feelings, and bodily reactions. It reduces to no single, concrete object or referent; rather, it represents a convenient abstraction of characteristics we observe in others and in ourselves. The breadth of the construct explains in part its popularity as a label in everyday discourse, but this breadth also creates some confusion among those who wish to understand the nature, origins, and consequences of shyness. Everyone is familiar with the common usage and general meaning of the term, and thus there is substantial overlap in the definitions and measures used in shyness research. At the same time, however, there are areas of fundamental disagreement. Those who study shyness differ in their emphasis and level of specificity, and these differences are reflected in the various ways in which shyness is conceptualized and operationalized as well as in the type of questions that are researched.

Keywords

Social Anxiety Social Avoidance Distress Scale Global Observation Prior Behavior 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Browne, J. A., and Howarth, E. (1977). A comprehensive factor analysis of personality questionnaire items: A test of twenty putative factor hypotheses. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 12, 399427.Google Scholar
  2. Briggs, S. R. ( 1984, August). Components of shyness. Paper presented at the meetings of the American Psychological Association, Anaheim, CA.Google Scholar
  3. Briggs, S. R., and Metz, D. M. ( 1985, August). The factor structure of shyness reactions. Paper presented at the meetings of the American Psychological Association, Toronto, Canada.Google Scholar
  4. Buss, A. H. (1980). Self-consciousness and social anxiety. New York: W. H. Freeman.Google Scholar
  5. Campbell, H. (1896). Morbid shyness. The British Medical Journal, 2, 805–807.Google Scholar
  6. Carducci, B. J., and Webber, A. W. (1979). Shyness as a determinant of interpersonal distance. Psychological Reports, 44, 1075–1078.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cattell, R. B. (1973). Personality and mood by questionnaire. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  8. Cavert, C. W. (1982). A trait-situation analysis of shyness. Unpublished M.A. thesis, University of Tulsa, OK.Google Scholar
  9. Cheek, J. M., and Buss, A. H. (1981). Shyness and sociability. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 41, 330–339.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Daly, S. (1978). Behavioral correlates of social anxiety. British Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 17, 117–120.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Dixon, J. J., deMonchaux, C., and Sandler, J. (1957). Patterns of anxiety: An analysis of social anxieties. British Journal of Medical Psychology, 30, 102–112.Google Scholar
  12. Fatis, M. (1983). Degree of shyness and self-reported physiological, behavioral, and cognitive reactions. Psychological Reports, 52, 351–354.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Fenigstein,A., Scheier, M. F., and Buss, A. H. (1975). Public and private self-consciousness: Assessment and theory. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 43, 522–527.Google Scholar
  14. Fiske, D. W. (1971). Measuring the concepts of personality. Chicago: Aldine.Google Scholar
  15. Girodo, M., Dotzenroth, S. E., and Stein, S. J. (1981). Causal attribution bias in shy males: Implications for self-esteem and self-confidence. Cognitive Therapy and Research,5(4), 325–338.Google Scholar
  16. Ickes, W. J. (1982). A basic paradigm for the study of personality, roles, and social behavior. In W. J. Ickes and E. S. Knowles (Eds.), Personality, roles, and social behavior (pp. 305–341 ). New York: Springer-Verlag.Google Scholar
  17. Izard, C. E. (1977). Human emotions. New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  18. Jones, W. H., and Briggs, S. R. (1984). The self-other discrepancy in social shyness. In R. Schwarzer (Ed.). The self in anxiety, stress and depression. Amsterdam: North Holland.Google Scholar
  19. Jones, W. H., and Russell, D. (1982). The Social Reticence Scale: An objective measure of shyness. Journal of Personality Assessment, 46, 629–631.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Jones, W. H., Cavert, C., and Indart, M. ( 1983, August). Impressions of shyness. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Psychological Association, Anaheim, CA.Google Scholar
  21. Jones, W. H., Sansone, C., and Helm, B. (1983). Loneliness and interpersonal judgments. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 9, 431–441.Google Scholar
  22. Jones, W. H., Briggs, S. R., and Smith, T. G. (1985). Shyness: Conceptualization and measurement. Unpublished manuscript, University of Tulsa.Google Scholar
  23. Leary, M. R. (1983). Social anxiousness: The construct and its measurement. Journal of Personality Assessment, 47, 66–75.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Leary, M. R., Knight, P. D., and Johnson, K. A. (1984). Social anxiety and dyadic conversation: A verbal response analysis. Unpublished manuscript, University of Texas at Austin.Google Scholar
  25. Litwinski, Leon. (1950). Constitutional shyness; its active and passive forms. The Journal of General Psychology, 42, 299–311.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Mandel, N. M., and Shrauger, J. S. (198D). The effects of self-evaluative statements on heterosocial approach in shy and nonshy males. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 4, 369–381.Google Scholar
  27. Maroldo, G. K., Eisenreich, B. H., and Hall, P. (1979). Reliability of a modified Stanford Shyness Survey. Psychological Reports, 44, 706.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. McClelland, D. C. (1951). Personality. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.Google Scholar
  29. McCroskey, J. C., Andersen, J. F., Richmond, V. P., and Wheeless, L. R. (1981). Communication apprehension of elementary and secondary students and teachers. Communication Education, 30, 122–132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. McCroskey, J. C. (1981). Oral communication apprehension: Reconceptualization and a new look at measurement. In M. Burgoon (Ed.), Communication Yearbook 6. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  31. McCroskey, J. C., and Richmond, V. P. (1982). Communication apprehension and shyness: Conceptual and operational distinctions. Central States Speech Journal, 33, 458–468.Google Scholar
  32. McGovern, L. P. (1976). Dispositional social anxiety and helping behavior under three conditions of threat. Journal of Personality, 44, 84–97.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Miller, W. R., and Arkowitz, H. (1977). Anxiety and perceived causation in social success and failure experiences: Disconfirmation of an attribution hypothesis in two experiments. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 36, 665–668.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Mischel, W. (1968). Personality and assessment. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  35. Morris, C. G. (1982). Assessment of shyness. Unpublished manuscript, University of Michigan.Google Scholar
  36. Orchard, J., Schallow, J., and Perlman, D. (1984). The behavioral consequences of shyness and the responses of others to the shy. Unpublished manuscript, University of Manitoba.Google Scholar
  37. Patterson, M. L., and Strauss, M. E. (1972). An examination of the discriminant validity of the social avoidance and distress scale. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 39, 169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Pilkonis, P. A. (1977). The behavioral consequences of shyness. Journal of Personality, 45, 596–611.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Sears, D. O. (1967). Social anxiety, opinion structure and opinion change. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 7, 142–151.Google Scholar
  40. Stiles, W. B. (1973). Manual for a taxonomy of verbal response modes. Chapel Hill: Institute for Research in Social Science, University of North Carolina.Google Scholar
  41. Watson, D., and Friend, R. (1969). Measurement of social-evaluative anxiety. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 33, 448–457.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Zimbardo, P. G. (1977). Shyness: What it is and what to do about it. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stephen R. Briggs
    • 1
  • Thomas G. Smith
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of TulsaTulsaUSA
  2. 2.Late of the Department of Behavioral StatisticsBaylor UniversityWacoUSA

Personalised recommendations