Shyness pp 315-327 | Cite as

Cognitive Therapy for Shyness and Social Anxiety

  • Carol R. Glass
  • Cheryl A. Shea
Part of the Emotions, Personality, and Psychotherapy book series (EPPS)


In a review of the recent literature, Pilkonis (1984) reported that 15% to 20% of the general adult population may experience distressing social anxiety. Shyness has been linked with depression, occupational difficulty, sexual dysfunction, and assertiveness deficits (Zimbardo, 1977). Thus, it is clear that shyness and social anxiety are important and clinically relevant problems.


Social Skill Social Anxiety Cognitive Therapy Irrational Belief Negative Thought 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Arnkoff, D. B. (1981). Flexibility in practicing cognitive therapy. In G. Emery, S. D. Hollon, & R. C. Bedrosian (Eds.), New directions in cognitive therapy (pp. 203–223 ). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  2. Arnkoff, D. B., Glass, C. R., McKain, T., Shea, C. A., & Greenberg, J. M. (1984, August). Client predispositions to respond to cognitive and social skills treatments for shyness. In J. M. Cheek (Chair), Shyness: Personality development, social behavior, and treatment approaches. Symposium conducted at the meeting of the American Psychological Association, Toronto.Google Scholar
  3. Beck, A. T. (1976). Cognitive therapy and the emotional disorders. New York: International Universities Press.Google Scholar
  4. Beck, A. T., & Emery, G. (1979). Cognitive therapy of anxiety and phobic disorders. Philadelphia: Center for Cognitive Therapy.Google Scholar
  5. Cacioppo, J. T., Glass, C. R., & Merluzzi, T V (1979). Self-statements and self-evaluations: A cognitive response analysis of heterosocial anxiety. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 3, 249–262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. DiLoreto, A. O. (1971). Comparative psychotherapy. Chicago: Aldine.Google Scholar
  7. Elder, J. P., Edelstein, B. A., & Fremouw, W. J. (1981). Client by treatment interactions in response acquisition and cognitive restructuring approaches. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 5, 203–210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Ellis, A. (1962). Reason and emotion in psychotherapy. New York: Lyle Stuart.Google Scholar
  9. Ellis, A. (1963). Sex and the single man. New York: Lyle Stuart.Google Scholar
  10. Glass, C. R., & Arnkoff, D. B. (1982). Think cognitively: Selected issues in cognitive assessment and therapy. In P. C. Kendall (Ed.), Advances in cognitive-behavioral research and therapy (Vol. 1, pp. 35–71 ). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  11. Glass, C. R., & Furlong, M.R. (1984, August). A comparison of behavioral, cognitive, and traditional group therapy approaches for shyness. In J. M. Cheek (Chair), Shyness: Personality development, social behavior, and treatment approaches. Symposium conducted at the meeting of the American Psychological Association, Toronto.Google Scholar
  12. Glass, C. R., & Merluzzi, T. V. (1981). Cognitive assessment of social-evaluative anxiety. In T. V. Merluzzi, C. R. Glass, & M. Genest (Eds.), Cognitive assessment (pp. 388–438 ). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  13. Glass, C. R., Gottman, J. M., & Shmurak, S. H. (1976). Response acquisition and cognitive self-statement modification approaches to dating skills training. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 23, 520–526.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Glass, C. R., Merluzzi, T. V., Biever, J. L., & Larsen, K. H. (1982). Cognitive assessment of social anxiety: Development and validation of a self-statement questionnaire. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 6, 37–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Goldfried, M. R. (1979). Anxiety reduction through cognitive-behavioral intervention. In P. C. Kendall & S. D. Hollon (Eds.), Cognitive-behavioral interventions: Theory, research, and procedures (pp. 117–152 ). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  16. Goldfried, M. R., & Davison, G. C. (1976). Clinical behavior therapy. New York: Holt, Rinehart, & Winston.Google Scholar
  17. Goldfried, M. R., & Sobocinski, D. (1975). Effect of irrational beliefs on emotional arousal. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 43, 504–510.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Goldfried, M. R., Decenteceo, E. T., & Weinberg, L. (1974). Systematic rational restructuring as a self-control technique. Behavior Therapy, 5, 247–254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Gormally, J., Varvil-Weld, D., Raphael, R., & Sipps, G. (1981) Treatment of socially anxious college men using cognitive counseling and skills training. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 28, 147–157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Heimberg, R. G., Becker, R. E., Goldfinger, K., & Vermilyea, J. A. ( 1983, December). Cognitive-behavioral treatment of social phobia. Paper presented at the meeting of the Association for Advancement of Behavior Therapy, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  21. Kanter, N. J., & Goldfried, M. R. (1979). Relative effectiveness of rational restructuring and self-control desensitization for the reduction of interpersonal anxiety. Behavior Therapy, 10, 472–490.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Mahoney, M. (1974). Cognition and behavior modification. Cambridge, MA: Ballinger.Google Scholar
  23. Mahoney, M. J., & Arnkoff, D. B. (1978). Cognitive and self-control therapies. In S. L. Garfield & A. E. Bergin (Eds.), Handbook of psychotherapy and behavior change ( 2nd ed., pp. 689–722 ). New York: John Wiley & Sons.Google Scholar
  24. Malkiewich, L. E., & Merluzzi, T. V. (1980). Rational restructuring vs. desensitization with clients of diverse conceptual level: A test of a client-treatment matching model. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 27, 453–461.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Meichenbaum, D. H. (1972). Cognitive modification of test anxious college students. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 39, 370–380.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Meichenbaum, D. H. (1977). Cognitive-behavior modification. New York: Plenum Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Paul, G. L. (1967). Strategy of outcome research in psychotherapy. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 31, 109–118.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Pilkonis, P. A. (1984). Avoidant and schizoid personality disorders. In H. Adams & P. Sutker (Eds.), Comprehensive handbook of psychopathology. New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  29. Pipes, R. B. (1982). Social anxiety and isolation in college students: A comparison of two treatments. Journal of College Student Personnel, 23, 502–508.Google Scholar
  30. Schlever, S. R., & Gutch, K. U. (1983). The effects of self-administered cognitive therapy on social-evaluative anxiety. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 39, 658–666.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Shahar, A., & Merbaum, M. (1981). The interaction between subject characteristics and self-control procedures in the treatment of interpersonal anxiety. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 5, 22 1224.Google Scholar
  32. Stravynski, A., Marks, I., & Yule, W. (1982). Social skills problems in neurotic outpatients: Social skills training with and without cognitive modification. Archives of General Psychiatry, 39, 1378–1385.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Tiegerman, S., & Kassinove, H. (1977). Effects of assertive training and cognitive components of rational therapy on assertive behaviors and interpersonal anxiety. Psychological Reports, 40, 535–542.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Trower, P., O’Mahoney, J. F., & Dryden, W. (1982). Cognitive aspects of social failure: Some implications for social skills training. British Journal of Guidance and Counselling, 10, 176–184.Google Scholar
  35. Watkins, B. R. (1972). The development and evaluation of a transductive learning technique for the treatment of social incompetence (Doctoral dissertation, University of Oregon, 1972). Dissertation Abstracts International, 33, 2861B.Google Scholar
  36. Zimbardo, P. G. (1977). Shyness: What it is, what to do about it. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • Carol R. Glass
    • 1
  • Cheryl A. Shea
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyCatholic UniversityUSA

Personalised recommendations