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Shyness pp 265-278 | Cite as

Physiological, Affective, and Behavioral Implications of Extraversion-Introversion

  • Russell G. Geen
Part of the Emotions, Personality, and Psychotherapy book series (EPPS)

Abstract

The concept of extraversion-introversion has a long history. As Eysenck (1981) has noted in a recent historical overview, the idea is implicit in the earliest views of character types. The four temperaments of Galen (and later Kant)—long a staple item in introductory psychology textbooks—can be shown to fit into the four quadrants of a two-factor space defined by two broad orthogonal dimensions. Wundt defined the latter as changeability and emotionality. The Dutch psychologist Gerardus Heymans and his associates later described eight basic character types arranged along three dimensions—changeability, emotionality, and activity. (See Figure 1.) Even later, Spearman became the first to demonstrate the factors now called extraversion-introversion and neuroticism (Spearman’s “w” and “c,” respectively). Other historical contributions to the development of the notion of extraversion-introversion were made by Jung, who linked the two types to two different neurotic disorders, and Kretschmer, who indicated a relationships between introversion and hereditary constitutional factors.

Keywords

Social Anxiety Stimulus Intensity Sensation Seek Orient Response Vigilance Task 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • Russell G. Geen
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of Missouri at ColumbiaColumbiaUSA

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