Shyness pp 205-225 | Cite as

Positive, Negative, and Balanced Shyness

Self-Definitions and the Reactions of Others
  • Harrison G. Gough
  • Avril Thorne
Part of the Emotions, Personality, and Psychotherapy book series (EPPS)

Abstract

Prior research has shown shyness to be related to concern about evaluations or possible evaluations by others (Schlenker & Leary, 1982; Zimbardo, 1977), discomfort and inhibition in the presence of others (Cheek & Buss, 1981), diffidence about entering into social interaction (Pilkonis, 1977), and exaggerated self-scrutiny and self-appraisal (Fenigstein, Scheier, & Buss, 1975; Leary, 1982). Small wonder that shyness is typically viewed as a problem or deficit to be overcome (Zimbardo & Radl, 1981), and as a barrier preventing individuals from demonstrating their true worth in dealings with others (Leary & Schlenker, 1981). Even from this very brief formulation, it seems clear that research investigations of shyness may profitably address two themes, (a) assessment of the inner or self-view of oneself as shy, and (b) analyses of reactions of others to determine whether such responses have the negative tone feared and expected by the shy person.

Keywords

Staff Rating Nonzero Correlation Indicative Item Large Positive Correlation Undesirable Quality 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Barron, F. (1953). An ego-strength scale which predicts response to psychotherapy. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 17, 327–333.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Block, J. (1961). The Q-sort method in personality assessment and psychiatric research. Springfield, IL: Charles C Thomas.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Cheek, J. M., Buss, A. H. (1981). Shyness and sociability. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 41, 330–339.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Cheek, J. M., Zonderman, A. B. (1983, August). Shyness as a personality temperament. In J. M. Cheek (Chair), Progress in research on shyness. Symposium conducted at the meeting of the American Psychological Association, Anaheim, CA.Google Scholar
  5. Crutchfield, R. S., Woodworth, D. G., Albrecht, R. E. (1958). Perceptual performance and the effective person. Personnel Laboratories Report. (WADC-TN-58–60, ASTIA Document No. 131039 ). Lackland Air Force Base, TX.Google Scholar
  6. Edwards, A. L. (1957). The social desirability variable in personality assessment and research. New York: Dryden.Google Scholar
  7. Fenigstein, A., Scheier, M. F., Buss, A. H. (1975). Public and private self-consciousness: Assessment and theory. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 43, 522–527.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Gough, H. G. (1957). Manual for the California Psychological Inventory. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.Google Scholar
  9. Gough, H. G. (1960). The Adjective Check List as a personality assessment research technique. Psychological Reports, 6, 107–122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Gough, H. G. (1965). Conceptual analysis of psychological test scores and other diagnostic variables. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 70, 294–302.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Gough, H. G. (1979). Some factors related to men’s stated willingness to use a male contraceptive pill. Journal of Sex Research, 15, 27–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Gough, H. G., Heilbrun, A. B., Jr. (1983). The Adjective Check List manual-1983 edition. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.Google Scholar
  13. Hathaway, S. R., McKinley, J. C. (1943). The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Schedule. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  14. Heilbrun, A. B., Jr. (1959). Validation of a need scaling technique for the Adjective Check List. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 23, 347–351.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Hogan, R. (1969). Development of an empathy scale. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 33, 307–316.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Keillor, G. (1982) Happy to be here. New York: Atheneum.Google Scholar
  17. Leary, M. R. (1982). Social anxiety. In L. Wheeler (Ed.), Review of personality and social psychology (Vol. 3, pp. 97–120 ). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  18. Leary, M. R., Schlenker, B. R. (1981). The social psychology of shyness: A self-presentational model. In J. T. Tedeschi (Ed.), Impression management theory and social psychological research (pp. 335–358 ). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  19. Morris, D. P., Soroker, E., Burruss, G. (1954). Follow-up studies of shy, withdrawn children. I. Evaluation of later adjustment. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 24, 743–754.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Myers, I. B. (1962). The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator: Manual. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.Google Scholar
  21. Pilkonis, P. A. (1977). The behavioral consequences of shyness. Journal of Personality, 45, 596–611.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Schlenker, B. R., Leary, M. R. (1982). Social anxiety and self-presentation: A conceptualization and model. Psychological Bulletin, 92, 641–669.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Welsh, G. S. (1956). Factor dimensions A and R. In G. S. Welsh W. G. Dahlstrom (Eds.), Basic readings on the MMPI in psychology and medicine (pp. 264–281 ). Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  24. Williams, K. B., Williams, J. E. (1980). The assessment of transactional analysis ego states via the Adjective Check List. Journal of Personality Assessment, 44, 120–129.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Zimbardo, P. G. (1977). Shyness: What it is and what to do about it. New York: Jove.Google Scholar
  26. Zimbardo, P. G., Radl, S. L. (1981). A description and theory of shyness. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  27. Zimbardo, P. G., Pilkonis, P. A., Norwood, R. M. (1974). The silent prison of shyness (ONR Tech. Rep. Z-17). Stanford, CA: Stanford University.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • Harrison G. Gough
    • 1
  • Avril Thorne
    • 2
  1. 1.Institute of Personality AssessmentUniversity of California, BerkeleyBerkeleyUSA
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyWellesley CollegeWellesleyUSA

Personalised recommendations