Advertisement

Body Composition in Adolescence

  • Gilbert B. Forbes

Abstract

Anatomists showed many years ago that some organs grow at rates that differ from that of the body as a whole. In recent decades we have witnessed the development of techniques that permit the assessment of certain features of body composition in the living subject. Humans rank among the fattest of mammals, and it is this fact, among others, which has stimulated the development of methods for estimating the relative proportions of lean and fat in our species; assays for total body Ca, P, and N have also been developed. These methods make it possible to define the contribution of each component to the adolescent growth process. Body composition data can also help in estimating certain nutritional requirements for growth. Although long a favorite of nutritionists, the metabolic balance method is not equal to this task (Wallace, 1959; Forbes, 1973, 1983), and one can look forward to more realistic estimates based on these newer techniques.

Keywords

Body Composition Lean Body Mass Body Density Total Body Water Obese Adolescent 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Allen, T. H., Anderson, E. C., and Langham, W. H., 1960, Total body potassium and gross body composition in relation to age, J. Gerontol. 15: 348.Google Scholar
  2. Anderson, J., Osborn, S. B., Tomlinson, R. W. S., Newton, D., Rundo, J., Salmon, L., and Smith, J. W., 1964, Neutron-activation analysis in man in vivo: A new technique in medical investigation, Lancet 2: 1201.Google Scholar
  3. Archibald, E. A., Harrison, J. E., and Pencharz, P. B., 1983, Effect of a weight-reducing high-protein diet on the body composition of obese adolescents, Am J. Dis. Child. 137: 658.Google Scholar
  4. Bauer, J. G., 1976, Oral administration of radioactive sulfate to measure extracellular fluid space in man, J. Appl. Physiol. 40: 648.Google Scholar
  5. Bedell, G. N., Marshall, R., Dubois, A. B., and Harris, J. H., 1956, Measurement of the volume of gas in the gastrointestinal tract. Values in normal subjects and ambulatory patients, J. Clin. Invest. 34: 336.Google Scholar
  6. Behnke, A. R., and Wilmore, J. H., 1974, Evaluation and Regulation of Body Build and Composition, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey.Google Scholar
  7. Behnke, A. R., Feen, B. G., and Welham, W. C., 1942, The specific gravity of healthy men, J. Am. Med. Assoc. 118: 495.Google Scholar
  8. Bezold, A. von, 1857, Untersuchungen über die Vertheilung von Wasser, organischer Materie und anorganische Verbindungen im Thierreiche, Z. Wiss. Zool. 8: 486.Google Scholar
  9. Boddy, K., Lindsay, R., Holloway, I., Smith, D. A. S., Elliott, A., Robertson, I., and Glaros, D., 1976, A study of changes in whole-body calcium, phosphorus, sodium and nitrogen by neutron activation analysis in vivo in rats on a calcium-deficient diet, Clin. Sci. Mol. Med. 51: 399.Google Scholar
  10. Bonnard, G. D., 1968, Cortical thickness and diaphyseal diameter of the metacarpal bones from the age of three months to eleven years, HeIv. Paediatr. Acta 30: 445.Google Scholar
  11. Booth, R. A. D., Goddard, B. A., and Paton, A., 1966, Measurement of fat thickness in man: A comparison of ultrasound, Harpenden calipers, and electrical conductivity, Br. J. Nutr. 20: 719.Google Scholar
  12. Borgstedt, A., Forbes, G. B., and Reina, J. C., 1970, Total body potassium and lean body mass in patients with Duchenne dystrophy and their female relations, Neuropadiatrie 1: 447.Google Scholar
  13. Borisov, B. K., and Marei, A. N., 1974, Weight parame- ters of adult human skeleton, Health Phys. 27: 224.Google Scholar
  14. Borkan, G. A., Gerzof, S. G., Robbins, A. H., Hults, D. E., Silbert, C. K., and Silbert, J. E., 1982, Assessment of abdominal fat content by computed tomography, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 36: 172.Google Scholar
  15. Bradbury, M. W. B., 1961, Urea and deuterium-oxide spaces in man, Br. J. Nutr. 15: 177.Google Scholar
  16. Brodie, B. B., Berger, E. Y., Axelrod, J., Dunning, M. F., Porosowska, Y., and Steele, J. M., 1951, Use of N-acetyl-4-aminoantipyrine (NAAP) in measurement of total body water, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 77: 794.Google Scholar
  17. Brook, C. G. D., 1971, Determination of body composition of children from skinfold measurements, Arch. Dis. Child. 46: 182.Google Scholar
  18. Brook, C. G. D., Huntley, R. M. C., and Slack, J., 1975, Influence of heredity and environment in determination of skinfold thickness in children, Br. Med. J. 2: 719.Google Scholar
  19. Brown, M. R., Klish, W. J., Hollander, J., Campbell, M. A., and Forbes, G. B., 1983, A high protein, low calorie liquid diet in the treatment of very obese adolescents: Long term effect on lean body mass, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 38: 20.Google Scholar
  20. Brozek, J., Grande, F., Anderson, J. T., and Keys, A., 1963, Densitometric analysis of body composition: Revision of some quantitative assumptions, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 110: 113.Google Scholar
  21. Burmeister, V. W., and Fromberg, G., 1970, Depotfet, bestimmt nach der Kalium-40 Methode, und seine Beziehung zur Hautfaltendicke, Arc. Kinderh. 180: 228.Google Scholar
  22. Burmeister, W., and Bingert, A., 1967, Die quantitativen Veränderungen der menschlichen Zellmasse zwischen dem 8 und 90 Lebensjahr, Klin. Wochenschr. 45: 409.Google Scholar
  23. Buskirk, E. R., 1961, Underwater weighing and body density: A review of procedures, in: Techniques for Measuring Body Composition ( J. Brozek and A. Henschel, eds.), pp. 90–107, National Academy of Science, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  24. Cheek, D. B., 1968, Human Growth, Lea and Febiger, Philadelphia.Google Scholar
  25. Cheek, D. B., and West, C. D., 1955, An appraisal of methods of tissue chloride analysis: The total carcass chloride, exchangeable chloride, potassium and water of the rat, J. Clin. Invest. 34: 1744.Google Scholar
  26. Cheek, D. B., Schultz, R. B., Parra, A., and Reba, R. C., 1970, Overgrowth of lean and adipose tissue in adolescent obesity, Pediatr. Res. 4: 268.Google Scholar
  27. Christiansen, C., and Rödbro, P., 1975a, Estimation of total body calcium from the bone mineral content of the forearm, Scand. J. Clin. Lab. Invest. 35: 425.Google Scholar
  28. Christiansen, C., and Rödbro, P., 1975b, Bone mineral content and estimated total body calcium in normal adults, Scand. J. Clin. Lab. Invest. 35: 433.Google Scholar
  29. Christiansen, C., Rödbro, P., and Nielsen, C. T., 1975, Bone mineral content and estimated total body calcium in normal children and adolescents, Scand. J. Clin. Lab. Invest. 34: 507.Google Scholar
  30. Cohn, S. H., Abesamis, C., Zanzi, I., Aloia, J. F., Yasumura, S., and Ellis, K. J., 1977, Body elemental compositions: Comparison between black and white adults, Am. J. Physiol. 232: E419.Google Scholar
  31. Cohn, S. H., and Dombrowski, C. S., 1971, Measurement of total-body calcium, sodium, chlorine, nitrogen and phosphorus in man, J. NucL Med. 12: 499.Google Scholar
  32. Cohn, S. H., and Ellis, K. J., 1975, Predicting radial bone mineral content in normal subjects, Int. J. NucL Med. Biol. 2: 53.Google Scholar
  33. Cohn, S. H., Ellis, K. J., Wallach, S., Zanzi, I, Atkins, H. L., and Aloia, J. R., 1974, Absolute and relative deficit in total-skeletal calcium and radial bone mineral in osteoporosis, J. NucL Med. 15: 428.Google Scholar
  34. Collipp, P. J., Curti, V., Thomas, J., Sharma, R. K., Maddaiah, V. T., and Cohn, S. H., 1973, Body composition changes in children receiving human growth hormone, Metabolism 22: 589.Google Scholar
  35. Comstock, G. W., and Livesay, V. T., 1963, Subcutaneous fat determinations from a community-wide chest X-Ray survey in Muscogee County, Georgia, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 110: 475.Google Scholar
  36. Crook, G. H., Bennett, C. A., Norwood, W. D., and Mahaffey, J. A., 1966, Evaluation of skinfold measurements and weight chart to measure body fat, J. Am. Med. Assoc. 198: 39.Google Scholar
  37. Cureton, K. J., Boileau, R. A., and Lohman, T. G., 1975, A comparison of densitometric, potassium-40 and skin-fold estimates of body composition in prepubescent boys, Hum. Biol. 47: 321.Google Scholar
  38. Davies, D. L., and Robertson, J. W. K., 1973, Simultaneous measurement of total exchangeable potassium and sodium using 43K and 24Na, Metabolism 22: 133.Google Scholar
  39. Delwaide, P. A., and Crenier, E. J., 1973, Body potassium as related to lean body mass measured by total water determination and by anthropometric method, Hum. Biol. 45: 509.Google Scholar
  40. Dequeker, J., and Johnston, C. C., Jr. (eds.), 1982, Noninvasive Bone Measurements: Methodological Problems, IRL Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  41. Dietz, W. H., Jr., and Schoeller, D. A. 1982, Optimal dietary therapy for obese adolescents: Comparison of protein plus glucose and protein plus fat, J. Pediatr. 100: 638.Google Scholar
  42. Döbeln, W. von, 1956, Human standard and maximal metabolic rate in relation to fat-free body mass, Acta Physiol Scand. (Suppl.) 37: 126.Google Scholar
  43. Döbeln, W. von, 1959, Anthropometric determination of fat-free body weight, Acta Med. Scand. 165: 37.Google Scholar
  44. Dombrowski, C. S., Wallach, S., Shukla, K. K., and Cohn, S. H., 1973, Determination of whole body magnesium by in vivo neutron activation, Int. J. Nucl. Med. Biol. 1: 15.Google Scholar
  45. Durnin, J. V. G. A., and Taylor, A., 1960, Replicability of measurements of density of the human body as determined by underwater weighing, J. Appl. Physiol. 15: 142.Google Scholar
  46. Durnin, J. V. G. A., and Womersley, J., 1974, Body fat assessed from total body density and its estimation from skinfold thickness: Measurements on 481 men and women aged from 16 to 72 years, Br. J. Nutr. 32: 77.Google Scholar
  47. East, B. W., Boddy, K., and Price, W. H., 1976, Total body potassium content in males with X and Y chromosome abnormalities, Clin. Endocrinol. 5: 43.Google Scholar
  48. Edwards, K. D. G., and Whyte, H. M., 1962, The simple measurement of obesity, Clin. Sci. 22: 347.Google Scholar
  49. Ellis, K. J., and Cohn, S. H., 1975, Correlation between skeletal calcium mass and muscle mass in man, J. Appl. Physiol. 38: 455.Google Scholar
  50. Ellis, K. J., Shukla, K. K., Cohn, S. H., and Pierson, R. N., Jr., 1974, A predictor for total body potassium in man based on height, weight, sex and age: Application in metabolic disorders, J. Lab. Clin. Med. 83: 716.Google Scholar
  51. Ellis, K. J., Vaswani, A., Zanzi, I., and Cohn, S. H., 1976, Total body sodium and chlorine in normal adults, Metabolism 25: 645.Google Scholar
  52. Flynn, M. A., Murthy, Y., Clark, J., Comfort, G., Chase, G., and Bentley, A. E. T., 1970, Body composition of Negro and white children, Arch. Environ. Health 20: 604.Google Scholar
  53. Flynn, M. A., Woodruff, C., and Chase, G., 1972, Total body potassium in normal children, Pediatr. Res. 6: 239.Google Scholar
  54. Forbes, G. B., 1962, Methods for determining composition of the human body, Pediatrics 29: 477.Google Scholar
  55. Forbes, G. B., 1964, Lean body mass and fat in obese children, Pediatrics 34: 308.Google Scholar
  56. Forbes, G. B., 1972, Growth of the lean body mass in man, Growth 36: 325.Google Scholar
  57. Forbes, G. B., 1973, Another source of error in the metabolic balance method, Nutr. Rev. 31: 297.Google Scholar
  58. Forbes, G. B., 1974, Stature and lean body mass, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 27: 595.Google Scholar
  59. Forbes, G. B., 1976a, The adult decline of lean body mass, Hum. Biol. 48: 161.Google Scholar
  60. Forbes, G. B., 1976b, Biological implications of the adolescent growth process: Body composition, in: Nutrient Requirements in Adolescence (J. I. McKigney and H. N. Munro, eds.), pp. 57–66, M. I. T. Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts.Google Scholar
  61. Forbes, G. B., 1981, Pregnancy in the teenager: Biologic aspects, in: Pregnancy and Childbearing during Adolescence ( E. R. McAnarney and G. Stickle, eds.), pp. 85–90, Alan R. Liss, New York.Google Scholar
  62. Forbes, G. B., 1983a, Unmeasured losses of potassium in balance studies, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 38: 347.Google Scholar
  63. Forbes, G. B., 1983b, Some influences on lean body mass: Exercise, androgens, pregnancy, and food, in: Diet and Exercise: Synergism in Health Maintenance ( P. L. White and T. Mondeika, eds.), pp. 75–91, American Medical Association, Chicago.Google Scholar
  64. Forbes, G. B., 1984, Body composition as affected by physical activity and nutrition, Fed. Proc. 44: 343.Google Scholar
  65. Forbes, G. B., and Amirhakimi, G. H., 1970, Skinfold thickness and body fat in children, Hum. Biol. 42: 401.Google Scholar
  66. Forbes, G. B., and Bruining, G. J., 1976, Urinary creati-nine excretion and lean body mass, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 29: 1359.Google Scholar
  67. Forbes, G. B., and Hursh, J. B., 1963, Age and sex trends in lean body mass calculated from K40 measurements: With a note on the theoretical basis for the procedure, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 110: 255.Google Scholar
  68. Forbes, G. B., and Lewis, A., 1956, Total sodium, potassium, and chloride in adult man, J. Clin. Invest. 35:596. Forbes, G. B., and Perley, A. M., 1951, Estimation of total body sodium by isotopic dilution, J. Clin. Invest. 30: 558.Google Scholar
  69. Forbes, G. B., and Welle, S. L., 1983, Lean body mass in obesity, Init. J. Obesity 7: 99.Google Scholar
  70. Forbes, G. B., Schultz, F., Cafarelli, C., and Amirhakimi, G. H., 1968, Effects of body size on potassium-40 measurement in the whole body counter (tilt-chair technique), Health Phys. 15: 435.Google Scholar
  71. Forbes, G. B., Schwartz, R. H., and Nelson, L. A., 1979, Body composition studies in patients with cystic fibrosis, Cystic Fibrosis Foundation, Atlanta, Georgia (abstract).Google Scholar
  72. Forbes, G. B., Lantigua, R. A., Amatruda, J. M., and Lockwood, D. H., 1981, Errors in potassium balance, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 34: 105.Google Scholar
  73. Foy, J. M., and Schnieden, H., 1960, Estimation of total body water (virtual tritium space) in the rat, cat, rabbit, guinea pig and man, and of the biological half-life of tritium in man. J. Physiol. (London) 154: 169.Google Scholar
  74. Friis-Hansen, B., 1957, Changes in body water compart- ments during growth, Acta Paediatr. (Suppl.) 110: 46.Google Scholar
  75. Frisch, R. E., 1974, Critical weight at menarche, initiation of the adolescent growth spurt, and control of puberty, in: Control of Onset of Puberty ( M. Grumbach, G. Grave, and F. Mayer, eds.), pp. 403–423, Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
  76. Frisch, R. E., and Revelle, R., 1970, Height and weight at menarche and a hypothesis of critical body weight and adolescent events, Science 169: 397.Google Scholar
  77. Fuller, M. F., Houseman, R. A., and Cadenhead, A., 1971, The measurement of exchangeable potassium in living pigs and its relation to body composition, Br. J. Nutr. 26: 203.Google Scholar
  78. Gamble, J. L., Jr., Robertson, J. S., Hannigan, C. A., Foster, C. G., and Farr, L. F., 1953, Chloride, bromide, sodium, and sucrose spaces in man, J. Clin. Invest. 32: 483.Google Scholar
  79. Garn, S. M., 1961, Radiographic analysis of body composition, in: Techniques for Measuring Body Composition (J. Brozek and A. Henschel, eds.), pp. 36–58, National Academy of Science, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  80. Garn, S. M., 1970, The Earlier Gain and the Later Loss of Cortical Bone in Nutritional Perspective, Charles C Thomas, Springfield, Illinois.Google Scholar
  81. Garrow, J. S., Fletcher, K., and Halliday, D., 1965, Body composition in severe infantile malnutrition, J. Clin. Invest. 44: 417.Google Scholar
  82. Godfrey, B. E., and Wadsworth, G. R., 1970, Total body potassium in pregnant women, J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Br. Commonw. 77: 244.Google Scholar
  83. Goldman, R. F., Haisman, M. F., Bynum, G., Horton, E. S., and Sims, E. A. H., 1975, Experimental obesity in man, in: Obesity in Perspective (G. A. Bray, ed.), pp. 165–186, U.S. Department of Health Education and Welfare, Publ. No. (NIH) 75–708, Washington D.C.Google Scholar
  84. Greenway, R. M., Littell, A. S., Houser, H. B., Lindan, O., and Weir, D. R., 1965, An evaluation of the variability in measurement of some body composition parameters, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 120: 487.Google Scholar
  85. Griggs, R. C., Forbes, G. B., Moxley, R. T., and Herr, B. E., 1983, The assessment of muscle mass in progressive neuromuscular disease, Neurology (New York) 33: 158.Google Scholar
  86. Grüner, O., and Salmen, A., 1961, Vergleichende Körperwasserbestimmungen mit Hilfe von N-Acetyl-4-amino Antipyrin und Alkohol, Klin. Wochenschr. 39: 92.Google Scholar
  87. Gryfe, C. I., Exton-Smith, A. N., Payne, P. R., and Wheeler, E. F., 1971, Pattern of development of bone in childhood and adolescence, Lancet 1: 523.Google Scholar
  88. Hager, A., 1977, Adipose cell size and number in relation to obesity, Postgrad. Med. J. 53 (2): 101.Google Scholar
  89. Halliday, D., 1971, An attempt to estimate total body fat and protein in malnourished children, Br. J. Nutr. 26: 147.Google Scholar
  90. Harrison, J. E., and McNeill, K. G., 1982, Normalization for bone mass measurements by neutron activation analysis, in: Non-Invasive Bone Measurements: Methodological Problems (J. V. Dequeker and C. C. Johnston, Jr., eds.), pp. 129–135, IRL Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  91. Harvey, T. C., Dykes, P. W., Chen, N. S., Ettinger, K. V., Jain, S., James, H., Chettle, D. R., Fremlin, J. H., and Thomas, B. J., 1973, Measurement of whole-body nitrogen by neutron-activation analysis, Lancet 2: 395.Google Scholar
  92. Haschke, F., 1983, Body composition of adolescent males, Acta Paediatr.(Suppl.) 307: 1.Google Scholar
  93. Hastings, A. B., and Eichelberger, L., 1937, The exchange of salt and water between muscle and blood, J. Biol. Chem. 117: 73.Google Scholar
  94. Hawkins, W. W., 1964, Iron, copper, and cobalt, in: Nutrition: A Comprehensive Treatise ( G. H. Beaton and E. W. McHenry, eds.), Vol. 1, pp. 309–372, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  95. Haxhe, J. J., 1963, La Composition Corporelle Normale, Librairie Maloine S. A., Paris.Google Scholar
  96. Heald, F. P., Hunt, E. E., Jr., Schwartz, R., Cook, C. D., Elliot, O., and Vajda, B., 1963, Measures of body fat and hydration in adolescent boys, Pediatrics 31: 226.Google Scholar
  97. Hermansen, L., and Döbeln, W., von, 1971, Body fat and skinfold measurements, Scand. J. Clin. Lab. Invest. 27: 315.Google Scholar
  98. Heymsfield, S. B., Olafson, R. P., Kutner, M. H., and Nixon, D. W., 1979, A radiographic method of quantifying protein-calorie undernutrition, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 32: 693.Google Scholar
  99. Hoffer, E. C., Meador, C. K., and Simpson, D. C., 1969, Correlation of whole-body impedance with total body water volume, J. Appl. Physiol. 27: 531.Google Scholar
  100. Huenemann, R. L., Hampton, M. C., Behnke, A. R., Shapiro, L. R., and Mitchell, B. W., 1974, Teenage Nutrition and Physique, Charles C Thomas, Springfield, Illinois.Google Scholar
  101. Hume, R., 1966, Prediction of lean body mass from height and weight, J. Clin. Pathol. 19: 389.Google Scholar
  102. Hume, R., and Weyers, E., 1971, Relationship between total body water and surface area in normal and obese subjects, J. Clin. Pathol. 24: 234.Google Scholar
  103. Hytten, F. E., and Leitch, I., 1971, The Physiology of Human Pregnancy, 2nd ed., Blackwell, Oxford.Google Scholar
  104. Hytten, F. E., Taylor, K., and Taggart, N., 1966, Measurement of total body fat in many by absorption of 85Kr, Clin. Sci. 31: 111.Google Scholar
  105. International Atomic Energy Agency, 1970, Directory of Whole Body Radioactivity Monitors,Vienna.Google Scholar
  106. Jasani, B. M., and Edmonds, C. J., 1971, Kinetics of potassium distribution in man using isotope dilution and whole-body counting, Metabolism 20: 1099.Google Scholar
  107. Johnston, F. E., 1982, Relationships between body composition and anthropometry, Hum. Biol. 54: 221.Google Scholar
  108. Johny, K. V., Worthey, B. W., Lawrence, J. R., and O’Halloran, M. W., 1970, A whole body counter for serial studies of total body potassium, Clin. Sci. 39: 319.Google Scholar
  109. Katch, F. I., and Michael, E. D., Jr., 1968, Prediction of body density from skinfold and girth measurements of college females, J. Appl. Physiol. 25: 92.Google Scholar
  110. Kaufman, L., and Wilson, C. J., 1973, Determination of extracellular fluid volume by fluorescent excitation analysis of bromine, J. Nucl. Med. 14: 812.Google Scholar
  111. Khosla, T., 1968, Unfairness of certain events in the Olympic Games, Br. Med. J. 4: 111.Google Scholar
  112. King, J. C., Calloway, D. H., and Morgen, S., 1973, Nitrogen retention, total body 40K and weight gain in teenage pregnant girls, J. Nutr. 103: 772.Google Scholar
  113. Kjellberg, J., and Reizenstein, P., 1970, Body composition in obesity, Acta Med. Scand. 188: 161.Google Scholar
  114. Klish, W. J., Forbes, G. B., Gordon, A., and Cochran, W. J., 1984, New method for the estimation of lean body mass in infants (EMME instrument): Validation in nonhuman models, J. Ped. Gastrointest. Nutr. 3: 199.Google Scholar
  115. Knittle, J. L., 1976, Discussion, in: Nutrient Requirements in Adolescence (J. I. McKigney and H. N. Munro, eds.), pp. 76–83, M.I.T. Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts.Google Scholar
  116. Kreisberg, R. A., Bowdoin, B., and Meador, C. K., 1970, Measurement of muscle mass in humans by isotopic dilution of creatine-14C, J. Appl. Physiol. 28: 264.Google Scholar
  117. Lantigua, R. A., Amatruda, J. M., Biddle, T. L., Forbes, G. B., and Lockwood, D. H., 1980, Cardiac arrhythmias associated with a liquid protein diet for the treatment of obesity, N. Engl. J. Med. 303: 735.Google Scholar
  118. Lesser, G. T., Perl, W., and Steele, J. M., 1960, Determination of total body fat by absorption of an inert gas: Measurements and results in normal human subjects, J. Clin. Invest. 39: 1791.Google Scholar
  119. Lesser, G. T., Deutsch, S., and Markofsky, J., 1971, Use of independent measurement of body fat to evaluate overweight and underweight, Metabolism 20: 792.Google Scholar
  120. Linquette, M., Fossati, P., Lefebvre, J., and Checkau, C., 1969, The measurement of total water, exchangeable sodium and potassium in obese persons, in: Pathophysiology of Adipose Tissue ( J. Vague, ed.), pp. 302–316, Excerpta Medica Foundation, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  121. Ljunggren, H., Ikkos, D., and Luft, R., 1957, Studies on body composition, Acta Endocrinol. 25: 187.Google Scholar
  122. Loeppky, J. A., Myhre, L. G., Venters, M. D., and Luft, U. C., 1977, Total body water and lean body mass estimated by ethanol dilution, J. Appl. Physiol. 42: 803.Google Scholar
  123. Lohman, T. G., 1981, Skinfolds and body density and their relation to body fatness, Hum. Biol. 53: 181.Google Scholar
  124. Long, C. L., Haverberg, L. N., Young, V. R., Kinney, J. M., Munro, H. N., and Geiger, J. W., 1975, Metabolism of 3-methyl histidine in man, Metabolism 24: 929.Google Scholar
  125. Lukaski, H., and Mendez, J., 1980, Relationship between fat-free weight and urinary 3-methylhistidine excretion in man, Metabolism 29: 758.Google Scholar
  126. Lukaski, H. C., Mendez, J., Buskirk, E. R., and Cohn, S. H., 1981a, A comparison of methods of assessment of body composition including neutron activation analysis of total body nitrogen, Metabolism 30: 777.Google Scholar
  127. Lukaski, H. C., Mendez, J., Buskirk, E. R., and Cohn, S. H., 1981 b, Relationship between endogenous 3-methylhistidine excretion and body composition, Am. J. Physiol. 240: E302.Google Scholar
  128. Lye, M., May, T., Hammick, J., and Ackery, D., 1976, Whole body and exchangeable potassium measurements in normal elderly subjects, Eur. J. Nucl: Med. 1: 167.Google Scholar
  129. MacGillivray, I., and Buchanan, T. J., 1958, Total exchangeable sodium and potassium in non-pregnant women and in normal and pre-eclamptic pregnancy, Lancet 2: 1090.Google Scholar
  130. Magnus-Levy, A., 1906, Physiologie des Stoffwechsels, in: Handbuch der Pathologie des Stoffwechsels ( C. von Noorden, ed.), p. 446, Hirschwald, Berlin.Google Scholar
  131. Manery, J. F., and Haege, L. F., 1941, The extent to which radioactive chloride penetrates tissues, and its significance, Am. J. Physiol. 134: 83.Google Scholar
  132. Manzke, E., Chestnut, C. H. III, Wergedal, J. E., Baylick, D. J., and Nelp, W. B., 1975, Relationship between local and total bone mass, Metabolism 24: 605.Google Scholar
  133. Maresh, M. M., 1966, Changes in tissue widths during growth, Am. J. Dis. Child. 111: 142.Google Scholar
  134. Mazess, R. B., and Cameron, J. R., 1972, Growth of bone in school children: Comparison of radiographic morphometry and photon absorptiometry, Growth 36: 77.Google Scholar
  135. McCance, R. A., and Widdowson, E. M., 1951, A method of breaking down the body weights of living persons into terms of extracellular fluid, cell mass and fat, and some applications of it to physiology and medicine, Proc. R. Soc. Ser. B 138: 115.Google Scholar
  136. Meneely, G. R., Heyssel, R. M., Ball, C. O. T., Weiland, R. L., Lorimer, A. R., Constantinides, C., and Meneely, E. U., 1963, Analysis of factors affecting body composition determined from potassium content in 915 normal subjects, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 110: 271.Google Scholar
  137. Merritt, R. J., Bistrian, B. R., Blackburn, G. L., and Suskind, R. M., 1980, consequences of modified fasting in obese pediatric and adolescent patients. I. Protein-sparing modified fast, J. Pediatr. 96: 13.Google Scholar
  138. Mettau, J. W., Degenhart, J. J., Visser, H. K. A., and Holland, W. P. S., 1977, Measurement of total body fat in newborns and infants by absorption and desorption of nonradioactive xenon, Pediatr. Res. 11: 1097.Google Scholar
  139. Michael, E. D., Jr., and Katch, F. I., 1968, Prediction of body density from skinfold and girth measurements of 17-year-old boys, J. Appl. Physiol. 25: 747.Google Scholar
  140. Moore, F. D., Lister, J., Boyden, C. M., Ball, M. R., Sullivan, N., and Dagher, F. J., 1968, The skeleton as a feature of body composition: Values predicted by isotope dilution and observed by cadaver dissection in adult female, Hum. Biol. 40: 135.Google Scholar
  141. Morgan, D. B., and Burkinshaw, L., 1983, Estimation of non-fat body tissues from measurements of skinfold thickness, total body potassium and total body nitrogen, Clin. Sci. 65: 407.Google Scholar
  142. Moulton, C. R., 1923, Age and chemical development in mammals, J. Biol. Chem. 57: 79.Google Scholar
  143. Muldowney, F. P., 1961, Lean body mass as a metabolic reference standard, in: Techniques for Measuring Body Composition ( J. Brozek and A. Henschel, eds.), pp. 212–222, National academy of Science, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  144. Nagamine, S., and Suzuki, S., 1964, Anthropometry and body composition of Japanese young men and women, Hum. Biol. 36: 8.Google Scholar
  145. National Center for Health Statistics, 1974, Skinfold thickness of youths 12–17 years, U.S. Department of Health Education and Welfare, Publ. No. (HRA) 74614, Series 11, No. 132, Rockville, Maryland.Google Scholar
  146. Nelp, W. B., Palmer, H. E., Murano, R., Pailthorp, K., Hinn, G. M., Rich, C., Williams, J. L., Rudd, T. G., and Denney, J. D., 1970, Measurement of total body calcium (bone mass) in vivo with the use of total body neutron activation, J. Lab. Clin. Med. 76: 151.Google Scholar
  147. Nichols, B. L., Hazlewood, C. F., and Barnes, D. J., 1968, Percutaneous needle biopsy of quadriceps muscle: Potassium analysis in normal children, J. Pediatr. 72: 840.Google Scholar
  148. Novak, L. P., 1966a, Total body water and solids in six-to seven-year-old children: Differences between the sexes, Pediatrics 38: 483.Google Scholar
  149. Novak, L. P., 1966b, Physical activity and body composition of adolescent boys, J. Am. Med. Assoc. 197: 891.Google Scholar
  150. Novak, L. P., 1970, Comparative study of body composition of American and Filipino women, Hum. Biol. 42: 206.Google Scholar
  151. Novak, L. P., Tauxe, W. N., and Orvis, A. L., 1973, Estimation of total body potassium in normal adolescents by whole body counting: Age and sex differences, Med. Sci. Sports 5: 147.Google Scholar
  152. Oberhausen, E., Burmeister, W., and Huycke, E. J., 1965, Das Wachstum des Kaliumbestandes im Menschen gemessen mit dem Gänzkörperzähler, Ann. Paediatr. 205: 381.Google Scholar
  153. Owen, G. M., Jensen, R. L., and Fomon, S. J., 1962, Sex-related difference in total body water and exchangeable chloride during infancy, J. Pediatr. 60: 858.Google Scholar
  154. Pace, N., and Rathben, E. N., 1945, Studies on body composition, J. Biol. Chem. 158: 685.Google Scholar
  155. Pearson, A. M., Purchas, R. W., and Reineke, E. P., 1968, Theory and potential usefulness of body density as a predictor of body composition, in: Body Composition in Animals and Man (J. T. Reid, ed.), Publ. 1598, pp. 153–185, National Academy of Science, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  156. Pfeiffer, L., 1887, Über den Fettgehalt des Körpers, Z. Biol. 23: 340.Google Scholar
  157. Picou, D., Reeds, P. J., Jackson, A., and Poulter, N., 1976, The measurement of muscle mass in children using [15N]creatine, Pediatr. Res. 10: 184.Google Scholar
  158. Pitts, G. C., and Bullard, T. R., 1968, Some interspecific aspects of body composition in mammals, in: Body Composition in Animals and Man (J. T. Reid, ed.), Publ. 1598, pp. 45–70, National Academy of Science, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  159. Pollock, M. L, Hickman, T., Kendrick, A., Jackson, A., Linnerud, A., and Dawson, G., 1976, Prediction of body density in young and middle-aged men, J. Appl. Physiol. 40: 300.Google Scholar
  160. Presta, E., Wang, J., Harrison, G. G., Björntorp, P., Harker, W. H., and van Itallie, T. B., 1983, Measurement of total body electrical conductivity: A new method for estimation of body composition, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 34: 735.Google Scholar
  161. Presta, E., Segal, K. R., Gutin, B., Harrison, G. G., and van Itallie, T. B., 1983, Comparison in man of total body electrical conductivity and lean body mass derived from body density: Validation of a new body composition method, Metabolism 32: 524.Google Scholar
  162. Price, W. F., Hazelrig, J. B., Kreisberg, R. A., and Meador, C. K., 1969, Reproducibility of body composition measurements in a single individual, J. Lab. Clin. Med. 74: 557.Google Scholar
  163. Ringe, J. D., Rehpenning, W., and Kuhlencordt, F., 1977, Physiologie Änderung des Mineral gehalts von Radius und Ulna in Abhängigkeit von Lebensalter und Geschlecht, Fortschr. Röntgenstr. 126: 376.Google Scholar
  164. Rolland-Cachera, M. F., Sempé, M., Guilloud-Bataille, M., Patois, E., Pequignot-Guggenbuhl, F., and Fautrad, V., 1982, Adiposity indices in children, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 36: 178.Google Scholar
  165. Rudd, T. G., Pailthorp, K. G., and Nelp, W. B., 1972, Measurement of non-exchangeable sodium in normal man, J. Lab. Clin. Med. 80: 442.Google Scholar
  166. Rundo, J., and Sagild, U., 1955, Total and “exchangeable” potassium in humans, Nature (London) 175: 774.Google Scholar
  167. Russell, D. McR., Prendergast, P. J., Darby, P. L., Garfinkel, P. E., Whitwell, J., and Jeejeebhoy, K. N., 1983, A comparison between muscle function and body composition in anorexia nervosa: the effect of refeeding, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 38: 229.Google Scholar
  168. Schoeller, D. A., Dietz, W., van Santen, E., and Klein, P. D., 1982, Validation of saliva sampling for total body water determination by H2180 dilution, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 34: 591.Google Scholar
  169. Schuster, W., 1970, Über Methoden und Ergebnisse quantitativer Mineralsalzbestimmungen am kindlichen Skelett, Arch. Kinderh. 180: 256.Google Scholar
  170. Schutte, J. E., 1980, Growth differences between lower and middle income black male adolescents, Hum. Biol. 52: 193.Google Scholar
  171. Schutte, J. E., Longhurst, J. C., Gaffney, F. A., Bastian, B. C., and Blomqvist, C. G., 1981, Total plasma creati-nine: An accurate measure of total striated muscle, J. Appl. Physiol. 51: 762.Google Scholar
  172. Scott, E. C., and Johnston, F. E., 1982, Critical fat, menarche, and the maintenance of menstrual cycles: A critical review, J. Adolescent Health Care 2: 249.Google Scholar
  173. Seitchik, J., 1967, Total body water and total body density of pregnant women, Obstet. Gynecol. 29: 155.Google Scholar
  174. Shaffer, P., 1908, The excretion of kreatinin and kreatin in health and disease, Am. J. Physiol. 23: 1.Google Scholar
  175. Shephard, R. J., Hatcher, J., and Rode, A., 1973, On the body composition of the Eskimo, Eur. J. App!. Physiol. 32: 3.Google Scholar
  176. Shepherd, R. W., Thomas, B. J., Bennett, D., Cooksley, W. G. E., and Ward, L. C., 1983, Changes in body composition and muscle protein degradation during nutritional supplementation in nutritionally growth-retarded children with cystic fibrosis, J. Ped. Gastroenterol. Nutr. 2: 439.Google Scholar
  177. Shock, N. W., 1943, The effect of menarche on basal physiological functions in girls, Am. J. Physiol. 139: 288.Google Scholar
  178. Shukla, K. K., Ellis, K. J., Dombrowski, C. S., and Cohn, S. H., 1973, Physiological variation of total-body potassium in man, Am. J. Physiol. 224: 271.Google Scholar
  179. Siri, W. E., 1961, Body composition from fluid spaces and density: Analysis of methods, in: Techniques for Measuring Body Composition ( J. Brozek and A. Henschel, eds.), pp. 223–244, National Academy of Science, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  180. Sloan, A. W., 1967, Estimation of body fat in young men, J. Appl. Physiol. 23: 311.Google Scholar
  181. Smith, D. M., Nance, W. E., Kang, K. W., Christian, J. C., and Johnston, C. C., Jr., 1973, Genetic factors in determining bone mass, J. Clin. Invest. 52: 2800.Google Scholar
  182. Steinkamp, R., Cohen, N. L., Gaffey, W. R., McKey, T., Bron, G., Siri, W. E., Sargent, T. W., and Isaacs, E., 1965, Measures of body fat and related factors in normal adults—II: A simple clinical method to estimate body fat and lean body mass, J. Chron. Dis. 18: 1291.Google Scholar
  183. Stouffer, J. R., 1963, Relationship of ultrasonic measurements and X-rays to body composition, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 110: 31.Google Scholar
  184. Stuart, H. C., Hill, P., and Shaw, C., 1940, The growth of bone, muscle and overlying tissue as revealed by studies of roentgenograms of the leg area, Monogr. Soc. Res. Child Dev. V: (No. 3, serial No. 26) 1–190.Google Scholar
  185. Surveyor, I., and Hughes, D., 1968, Discrepancies between whole-body potassium content and exchangeable potassium, J. Lab. Clin. Med. 71: 464.Google Scholar
  186. Talso, P. J. Miller, C. E., Carballo, A. J., and Vasquez, I., 1960, Exchangeable potassium as a parameter of body composition, Metabolism 9: 456.Google Scholar
  187. Tanner, J. M., 1974, Sequence and tempo in the somatic changes in puberty, in: Control of the Onset of Puberty ( M. M. Grumbach, G. D. Grave, and F. E. Mayer, eds.), pp. 448–470, Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
  188. Tanner, J. M., and Whitehouse, R. H., 1967, The effect of human growth hormone on subcutaneous fat thickness in hyposomatotrophic and panhypopituitary dwarfs, J. Endocrinol. 39: 263.Google Scholar
  189. Tanner, J. M., and Whitehouse, R. H., 1975, Revised standards for triceps and subscapular skinfolds in British children, Arch. Dis. Child. 50: 142.Google Scholar
  190. Tisavipat, A., Vibulsreth, S., Sheng, H.-P., and Huggins, R. A., 1974, Total body water measured by desiccation and by tritiated water in adult rats, J. App!. Physiol. 37: 699.Google Scholar
  191. Trotter, M., and Hixon, B. B., 1974, Sequential changes in weight, density, and percentage ash weight of human skeletons from an early fetal period through old age, Anat. Rec. 179: 1.Google Scholar
  192. Wallace, W. M., 1959, Nitrogen content of the body and its relation to retention and loss of nitrogen, Fed. Proc. 18: 1125.Google Scholar
  193. Ward, G. M., Krzywicki, H. J., Rahman, D. P., Quaas, R. L., Nelson, R. A., and Consolazio, C. F., 1975, Relationship of anthropometric measurements to body fat as determined by densitometry, potassium-40, and body water, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 28: 162.Google Scholar
  194. Ward, L. C., Miller, M., Thomas, B. J., Cooksley, W. G., and Shepherd, R., 1981, 3-Methylhistidine excretion in children: Relationship with creatinine, body weight and fat-free mass, IRCS Med. Sci. 9: 725.Google Scholar
  195. Webb, P., 1981, Energy expenditure and fat-free mass in men and women, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 34: 1816.Google Scholar
  196. Wedgewood, R. J., 1963, Inconstancy of the lean body mass, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci 110: 141.Google Scholar
  197. Widdowson, E.M. McCance, R.A., and Spray, C.M., 1951, The chemical composition of the human body, Clin. Sci. 10: 113.Google Scholar
  198. Wieringen, J. C. van, 1971, Secular Changes in Growth, p. 193, Netherlands Institute for Preventive Medicine, Leiden.Google Scholar
  199. Wilmore, J. H., 1983, Body composition in sport and exercise: Directions for future research, Med. Sci. Sports Exercise 15: 21.Google Scholar
  200. Wilmore, J. H., and Behnke, A. R., 1970, An anthropometric estimation of body density and lean body weight in young women, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 23: 267.Google Scholar
  201. Wilmore, J. H., Girandola, R. N., and Moody, D. L., 1970, Validity of skinfold and girth assessment for predicting alterations in body composition, J. Appl. Physiol. 29: 313.Google Scholar
  202. Womersley, J., Durnin, J. V. G. A., Boddy, K., and Mahaffy, M., 1976, Influence of muscular development, obesity, and age on the fat-free mass of adults, J. Appl. Physiol. 41: 223.Google Scholar
  203. Young, C., Sipin, S. S., and Roe, D. A., 1968, Body composition of pre-adolescent and adolescent girls, J. Am. Diet. Assoc. 53: 25, 357.Google Scholar

Suggested Readings

  1. Brozek, J., 1961, Body composition, Science 134: 920.Google Scholar
  2. Brozek, J. (ed.), 1965, Human Body Composition: Approaches and Applications, Pergamon Press, Oxford. Brozek, J., and Henschel, A. (eds.), 1961, Techniques for Measuring Body Composition, National Academy of Science-National Research Council, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  3. Cohn, S. H., 1981, In vivo neutron activation analysis: State of the art and future prospects, Med. Phys. 8: 145.Google Scholar
  4. Cohn, S. H. (ed.), 1981, Non-invasive Measurements of Bone Mass and Their Clinical Application, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida.Google Scholar
  5. Elkinton, J. R., and Danowski, T. S., 1955, The Body Fluids, Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore.Google Scholar
  6. Garrow, J. S., 1974, Energy Balance and Obesity in Man, American Elsevier, New York.Google Scholar
  7. Garrow, J. S., 1981, Treat Obesity Seriously, Churchill Livingstone, London.Google Scholar
  8. Malina, R. M., 1969, Quantification of fat, muscle, and bone in man, Clin. Orthop. 65: 9.Google Scholar
  9. Moore, F. D., Olesen, K. H., McMurray, J. D., Parker, H. V., Ball, M. R., and Boyden, C. M., 1963, The Body Cell Mass and Its Supporting Environment, W. B, Saunders, Philadelphia.Google Scholar
  10. National Academy of Sciences, 1968, Body composition in Animals and Man, Publ. 1598, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  11. Parizkovâ, J., 1977, Body Fat and Physical Fitness, Martinus Nijhoff, The Hague.Google Scholar
  12. Sheng, H.-P., and Huggins, R. A., 1979, A review of body composition studies with emphasis on total body water and fat, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 32: 630.Google Scholar
  13. Tanner, J. M., 1962, Growth at Adolescence, 2nd ed., Blackwell, Oxford.Google Scholar
  14. Whipple, H. E., and Brozek, J. (eds.), 1963, Body composition, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 110:1.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gilbert B. Forbes
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Medicine and DentistryThe University of RochesterRochesterUSA

Personalised recommendations